Category Archives: Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – Life & Brief Biography

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – Introduction

He did not speak or advocate the cause of some particular race or ethnic group, but stood up for all humanity irrespective of race, color, class, language or geographical barriers. The Message he preached was universal, transgressing all obstacles whether artificial or otherwise. A Message so complete and comprehensive that it not only revolutionized the era in which it was proclaimed, but even today its timeless beauty has lost none of the original charm and continues its profound appeal to the human intellect.

What was that unique Message and who was the Messenger? Is it capable of solving the modern world’s myriad problem? Will it cater to the complicated aspects, characteristics and needs of human-beings, especially those of contemporary man? Does it provide political or social answers? Can it stimulate the intellect for scientific and technical discoveries? And how about moral and spiritual aspects? Did the Messenger set any worthy example by practicing what he preached, or was he just one of those fanciful visionaries?

The answer to all the above questions and even many more is, yes, it does. If the principles of this immortal message are sincerely observed, and if we are ready to tread the footsteps of that fantastic man, not only does it guarantee us a harmonious co-existence on this earth but also a blissful life in the hereafter. The moment modern man is ready to cast aside his blinkered lenses of prejudice and vain pride, he will understand that the eternal truth called ‘ISLAM’ and the final Prophet named MUHAMMAD were not something special or essential to the Arabia of 14 centuries ago, but are capable of remarkably solving the complex issues of our era, the Space Age.

Islam is a derivative of the word ‘Salaam’ (peace) and literally means submission. Submission to none except the One and only Allah, Who designed this vast universe, shaped the human race as the most excellent form of life, and moreover endowed them the power of intellect. Wonderful indeed! Because this unique submission frees mankind from all other forms of submission to idols, object ideas and the supposedly mysterious powers of nature.

As it is quite clear, Islam was not just some spontaneous burst or mirage on the burning sands of Arabia. In fact it marks the culmination and perfect ness of all previous divine messages ever revealed. And to carry out the great task of proclaiming His final message, the Almighty chose Muhammad (the Admirable) as the last Prophet, who was prophesied in all earlier Scriptures and whose life-style serves as a perfect model for us.

What can we write about a man who changed the destiny of the world and saved the human race from sure disaster! The loss in words becomes more apparent when we consider that he was divinely chosen for this great task and carried out the mission entrusted, in a most impeccable and flawless manner. He was every inch a perfect man, so complete that even his detractors and enemies could not find the smallest fault in his glowing personality.

When the Holy Qur’an describes him as the “Noblest Exemplar” for the human race including generations to come [And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality (68:4). And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds. (21:107)], it becomes all the more obvious that Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was something extraordinary and endowed with all fine qualities such as patience, courage, wisdom, generosity, intelligence, love and magnanimity -to cite a few -which show us how to mould our own lives.

About Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him)

Muhammad (peace be upon him) was an illiterate, but wise and well-respected man who was born in Makkah in the year 570 C.E., at a time when Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. His first years were marked by the deaths of his parents. Since his father died before his birth, his uncle, Abu Talib, from the respected tribe of Quraysh, raised him. As Muhammad (pbuh) grew up, he became known for his truthfulness, generosity and sincerity, so that he was sought after for his ability to arbitrate in disputes. His reputation and personal qualities also led to his marriage, at the age of twenty-five, to Khadijah, a widow whom he had assisted in business. Thenceforth, he became an important and trusted citizen of Makkah. Historians describe him as calm and meditative.

Muhammad (pbuh) never felt fully content to be part of a society whose values he considered to be devoid of true religious significance. It became his habit to retreat from time to time to the cave of Hira, to meditate near the summit of Jabal al-Nur, the “Mountain of Light”, near Makkah.

At the age of 40, while engaged in one such meditative retreat, Muhammad (pbuh) received his first revelation from God, through the Angel Gabriel. This revelation, which continued for 23 years, is known as the Quran, the faithful recording of the entire revelation of God. The first revelation read: «“Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from a clot (of blood). Recite: Your Lord is Most Noble, Who taught by the pen, taught man what he did not know.”» [96:1-5]

The first convert to Islam was Khadijah, whose support and companionship provided necessary reassurance and strength for Muhammad. He also won the support of some of his relatives and friends. Three basic themes of the early message were the majesty of the one, unique God, the futility of idol worship, the threat of judgment, and the necessity of faith, compassion and morality in human affairs. All these themes represented an attack on the crass materialism and idolatry prevalent in Makkah at the time. So when he began to proclaim the message to others the Makkans rejected him. He and his small group of followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew so fierce that in the year 622 C.E., God gave them the command to emigrate. This event, the Hijrah (migration), in which they left Makkah for the city of Madinah, some 260 miles to the north, marked the beginning of a new era and thus the beginning of the Muslim calendar. During his suffering, Muhammad (pbuh) drew comfort from the knowledge revealed to him about other prophets, such as Abraham, Joseph, and Moses, each of whom had also been persecuted and tested.

After several years and some significant battles, the Prophet and his followers were able to return to Makkah, where they forgave their enemies and established Islam definitively. By the time the Prophet died, at the age of 63, the greater part of Arabia had accepted Islam, and within a century of his death, Islam had spread as far west as Spain and as far east as China. It was clear that the message was not limited to Arabs; it was for the whole of humanity.

The Prophet’s sayings (Hadith), are also believed to be revelation. The number of sayings collected by his followers and scholars is about 10,000. Some typical examples of his sayings are as follows:

“To pursue knowledge is obligatory on every believing (man and woman).”” [Ibn Majah]

“Removing a harmful thing from the road is charity.”” [Bukhari, Muslim]

“Those who do not show tenderness and love cannot expect to have tenderness shown to them.”” [Bukhari]

“Adore Allah (God) as though you see Him; even if you do not see Him, He nonetheless sees you.”” [Bukhari, Muslim]

Although Muhammad is deeply loved, revered and emulated by Muslims as God’s final messenger, he is not an object of worship.

A Brief Biography Of Muhammad (pbuh)

Muhammad (pbuh) was born in Makkah on 12 Rabi` al-Awwal 570 c.e.

His father, Abdullah Ibn Abdul Muttalib of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, died before his birth. According to the custom of the Quraysh nobility, the infant Muhammad (pbuh), when only eight days old, was handed to a Bedouin wet-nurse to be brought up by her in the healthy atmosphere of the desert. At the age of five, Muhammad (pbuh) returned to the care of his mother, Aminah bint Wahb, whose father was the chief of the Banu Zahrah clan, but she died a year later. Muhammad (pbuh) then went to his paternal grandfather, `Abdul Muttalib, the chief of Banu Hashim and the leader of the people of Makkah, who gave him loving care. He died when Muhammad (pbuh) was eight, and the boy was then brought up by his uncle Abu Talib, who was to prove his shield and protection when some thirty years later his preaching brought upon him the enmity of the people of Makkah. Abu Talib was a merchant of modest means, and when Muhammad (pbuh) grew up, he assisted him in his business.

At the age of twelve, he accompanied his uncle in a merchant’s caravan to Syria. Muhammad (pbuh) was content with his lot as a shepherd, but his uncle Abu Talib desired something better for him and obtained him employment with a rich widow, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad. Thus Muhammad (pbuh) found himself at the age of twenty-five in charge of a caravan conveying merchandise to Syria. On his return, Khadijah was so pleased with his successful management of her business, and was so attracted by his nobility of character – reports about which she had heard from her old servant who had accompanied him – that she sent her sister to offer the young man her hand. Muhammad (pbuh) had felt drawn to Khadijah, and so matters were soon arranged and, though Khadijah was fifteen years his senior, their twenty-six years of married life were singularly happy.

Muhammad (pbuh) continued to work as a merchant. His fairness further enhanced his reputation as Al-Amin (The Trustworthy). In the year 605 c.e., a dispute arose during the reconstruction of the Ka`bah, which threatened to plunge the different clans of the Quraysh tribe into war, but the sagacious arbitration of Muhammad (pbuh) saved the situation and settled the dispute to everyone’s satisfaction. He continued to take an ever-increasing interest in public affairs and to exert himself in the service of the poor, the helpless and the weak. Many were the slaves who owed their freedom to Muhammad (pbuh), and many were the widows and orphans who lived on his generosity. Whenever the iniquities of his people oppressed him, Muhammad (pbuh) retired to the solitude of a cave in Mount Hira’ outside Makkah. There his soul tried to peer into the mysteries of creation, of life and death, of good and evil, to find order out of chaos. Solitude became a passion with him, and every year he would retire to the cave for the whole month of Ramadan, to mediate.

It was on one of these occasions, when he was forty years of age, that Muhammad (pbuh) received the Call. One night, while lying absorbed in his thoughts in the solitude of the cave, Muhammad (pbuh) was commanded by a mighty Voice to go forth and preach. Twice the Voice called and twice he ignored the Call. The Voice called for the third time and revealed to him the first verses from the Qur’an. Alarmed by the experience, Muhammad (pbuh) rose trembling, and hastened home to seek rest and solace for his troubled mind and tortured soul in Khadijah’s tender care, and she calmed and comforted him. When he had recovered sufficiently, he sought the solitude of the hills to soothe his anguish of mind when the Angel of Allah appeared to him and recalled him to his duty to mankind. Awe-stricken, he hurried back to his house and asked Khadijah to wrap him in warm garments. She did her best to reassure him, saying that his conduct through life had been such that Allah would not let a harmful spirit come to him. She later consulted her kinsman, Waraqah ibn Nawfal, an old man who knew the Scriptures of the Jews and the Christians. He declared that the heavenly message that had come to Moses of old had now come to Muhammad (pbuh), and that he was chosen as a Prophet of Allah. The very thought of being chosen out of all mankind with such a Mission profoundly disturbed Muhammad’s (pbuh) humble and devout mind. Khadijah was the first to accept the truth of his Mission, and then he communicated his experience to his cousin Ali, his adopted son Zayd, and his intimate friend Abu Bakr. These persons, who knew him best and had lived and worked with him and noted all his movements and the sincerity of his character, became his first converts.

The Prophet began by preaching his mission secretly first among his intimate friends, then among the members of his own tribe and thereafter publicly in the city and suburbs. Standing alone, he proclaimed the glory of Allah, publicly denounced the idolatry of his people and their evil ways, and called them to Allah and the better life. The Quraysh tribe were the guardians of the Ka`bah, the holy place to which all Arabs made pilgrimage, and it was a source of great prestige and profit to their city, Makkah. They were, therefore, seriously alarmed and became actively hostile towards Muhammad (pbuh), who was now publicly preaching against the worship of the idols in the Ka`bah, which ranked first among the vested interests. During the season of the pilgrimage, men were posted on all the roads to warn the tribes against the madman who was preaching against their gods. The early converts of Muhammad (pbuh), who were mostly humble folk, were subjected to great oppression. And in spite of his rank, Muhammad (pbuh) himself would have been killed if the Quraysh had not been deterred by the fear of blood vengeance from his powerful clan, Banu Hashim.

The persecution increased as Muhammad’s (pbuh) converts grew in number and influence.The fury of the people of Makkah knew no bounds. Muhammad (pbuh), the respected citizen of rank and high descent, “Al-Amin” of his people, was henceforth subjected to insults, to personal violence, and to the bitterest persecution, and his converts were most relentlessly oppressed, persecuted and tortured. Deeply grieved at the sad plight of his followers, Muhammad (pbuh) advised them in the fifth year of his Mission to leave the country and seek refuge from the persecution of the idolators among the Christian people of Abyssinia. Muhammad (pbuh) and a few stalwart followers remained in Makkah and suffered untold misery and oppression, but still their number continued to increase. In their exasperation, the Quraysh outlawed Muhammad (pbuh) and asked his clan to forgo their right of avenging his blood. Though unbelievers and participators in the persecution, the proud clansmen refused to give up the right at the bidding of the people of Makkah, who thereupon boycotted them. Muhammad (pbuh), the small band of his followers and Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib suffered such terrible hardships that the better minds among the people of Makkah grew weary of the social ostracism of old friends and neighbors.

After three years, towards the end of 619 c.e., the ban was lifted. Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib were now free to follow their vocations, but opposition to Muhammad (pbuh) became ever more relentless. A year later, Muhammad (pbuh) lost his uncle and protector, the noble Abu Talib, and his beloved wife, Khadijah, in whose love and devotion he had found comfort, solace and encouragement. The death of Abu Talib removed the last check on the Makkans’ violence. Muhammad (pbuh) was now defenseless and in continual peril of his life. Persecution grew ever fiercer, and Muhammad (pbuh)sought refuge in the neighboring city of Ta’if, where he was met with great hostility and barely escaped with his life. But a turning point in his career was at hand. Muhammad (pbuh) made several converts in a party of pilgrims from the prosperous city of Yathrib.

After the Pilgrimage, the men of Yathrib returned to their city with a Muslim teacher, and in the following year, at the time of Pilgrimage, seventy-three Muslims from Yathrib came to Makkah to vow allegiance to the Prophet and invited him to go to their city. Muhammad (pbuh) took council with his Makkan followers, and it was decided that they should immigrate to Yathrib. They left gradually and unobtrusively, Muhammad (pbuh) remaining to the last. Their departure was soon discovered by the Quraysh, who decided to slay Muhammad (pbuh) before he too escaped, for although they hated the idea of his preaching in their midst, they dreaded still more the spread of his influence if he escaped from Makkah. They, therefore, cast lots and chose forty men, one from each clan, who took a solemn vow to kill Muhammad (pbuh). They were to strike simultaneously so that the murder could not be avenged by blood feud on any one clan. But on the night they were to kill him, Muhammad (pbuh) left Makkah with Abu Bakr. Eluding his pursuers over a long distance of desert and rocks, he reached Yathrib, thereafter known as Madinah. This event is called the Hijrah, or emigration. It marks the greatest turning point in the history of Muhammad’s (pbuh) Mission, and the Muslim calendar is named after it. Muhammad (pbuh) was now free to preach and his followers increased rapidly. The Muslims could now worship freely and live according to the laws of Allah.

It was during this period, with the Prophet now the head of a nascent Islamic State, that most of the Qur’anic verses regarding the rules of society were revealed. But the people of Makkah were not going to allow Muhammad’s (pbuh) movement to take root in Madinah. They organized three great expeditions against the city, but all were beaten back. Eventually the Makkans and Muslims concluded the Treaty of Hudaybiyah to maintain peace between them and to observe neutrality in their conflicts with third parties. Profiting by the peace, the Prophet launched an intensive program for the propagation of Islam. A few weeks after the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) sent letters to several kings and the Byzantine and Persian Emperors () inviting them to Islam. The king of Abyssinia and the ruler of Bahrain accepted Islam , while the Byzantine ’Emperor, Heraclius, acknowledged Muhammad’s (pbuh) Prophethood without actually accepting Islam. It was not until the eighth year after the Hijrah that the Muslims were able to put an end to this war by gaining a bloodless victory over Makkah when the Makkans violated the terms of their treaty. The people of Makkah, who had relentlessly oppressed Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers for twenty-one years, expected dire vengeance, but in the hour of their defeat they were treated with the greatest magnanimity. “Go, you are free!” were the words with which Muhammad (pbuh) gave them general amnesty. The Prophet (pbuh) removed all the idols in and around the Ka`bah, saying, “And say: Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished away. Lo! falsehood is ever bound to vanish.”(Al-Isra’: 81). Also, the Muslim call to prayer was heard in this ancient sanctuary. The Surrender of Makkah was followed by the submission of the surrounding tribes and the acknowledgement of Muhammad’s (pbuh) spiritual and temporal leadership over the whole of Arabia.

During the ninth year of the Hijrah, delegations came from all parts of Arabia to swear allegiance to the Prophet (pbuh) and to hear the Qur’an. Islam now spread by leaps and bounds, and the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula and the southern regions of Iraq and Palestine had voluntarily embraced Islam. In the tenth year, Muhammad (pbuh) went to Makkah as a pilgrim, and he felt it was for the last time because of the Revelation he received there included the verse, ” […]This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you […]” (Al-Ma’idah: 3) On his return to Madinah, he fell ill of a mortal fever. It lasted for fifteen days, but he continued to lead the prayers until three days before his death, when he deputed Abu Bakr. At early dawn on the last day of his earthly life, Muhammad (pbuh) came out from his room beside the mosque and joined the public prayers, but later in the day he died. The end came peacefully; murmuring of pardon and the company of the righteous in Paradise, the Prophet (pbuh) of Islam breathed his last breath, at the age of 63, on Wednesday, 12 Rabi` al-Awwal 11 a.h. By the time his mission had ended, the Prophet (pbuh) was blessed with several hundred thousand followers, both men and women. Thousands prayed with him at the mosque and listened to his sermons. Hundreds of sincere Muslims found every opportunity to be with him following the five daily prayers and at other times. They sought his advice for their everyday problems and listened attentively to the interpretation and application of revealed verses to their situation. They followed the message of the Qur’an and the Messenger of Allah with utmost sincerity and supported him with everything they had. After his death, they faithfully carried the message of Islam, and within ninety years the light of Islam reached Spain, North Africa, the Caucasus, northwest China and India.

The State of the World Before Islam

When Almighty Allah sent His last and greatest Prophet, Muhammad (s.a.w.), mankind was immersed in a state of degeneration. The messages of the past prophets had been distorted and ignored, civilization was on the decline and humanity had slumped into an age of darkness, with disbelief, oppression and corruption rife everywhere. The whole world presented the gloomiest picture ever of human history. Hence the Qur’an’s terming of this chaotic state of affairs as ‘Ignorance’, or to put it exactly in the very words the Holy Book has used; ‘Jahiliyyah’.

Consequently it is incorrect to view ‘Jahiliyyah’ as something of the remote past, for it is quite clear from the Qur’an’s terminology that any people rejecting Divine Messengers, turning a deaf ear to the Almighty’s revelations and overcome with carnal desires, can aptly be termed an ignorant lot. Therefore broadly speaking, the term ‘Jahiliyyah’ is not limited to any particular era but can also be applied to all similar societies irrespective of whether they existed in the past or are still found in our contemporary era, the so-called, Space Age.

Accordingly, it is easy to recognize the symptoms of ‘Jahiliyyah’, for wherever there is ‘Jahiliyyah’, there is oppression and corruption, because the salient features of such a society are disbelief, deviation, breach of divine commandments, spread of injustice and vices such as usury, drinking alcohol, adultery, gambling, bloodshed, moral decadence, etc. Thus any society in which such perversions prevail is without doubt ‘Jahiliyyah’.

Such was the sad state of affairs in which mankind lived, before Allah sent them a Prophet, describing him as a ‘Mercy for the creation’. The Arabs among whom Muhammad (s.a.w.) was born were fragmented into a number of heterogeneous tribes constantly engaged in internecine bloodshed. They had replaced Abraham’s monotheism with the worship of idols, stars, angels and demons, turning the Ka’ba built for the One and Only Creator, into a pantheon of idols. Tribal rivalries and blood feuds, fueled among them like the burning desert sands of Arabia.

Ignorance was not confined to the Arabs alone, for on the fringes of Arabia where the desert gives way to hospitable lands, met the ever changing borders of ‘World Arrogance’, the two superpowers of the age; the Persian and the Byzantine Empires. Both bidding for hegemony over the known world had bled white with wars, and despite their massive territories, it was obvious they were in their death throes.

The fire-worshipping Persians with their strange concept of dualism were further plagued by the still weirder Mazda kite doctrine, which advocated communal ownership and went to such an extent as to rule women to be the common property of all men. Like Mani a few centuries earlier, who had claimed a new religion by combining the teachings of Jesus and Zoroaster, Mazda’s movement was also a reaction to the corruption of the traditional priestly class. Both creeds had flattered to deceive and died away after the execution of their proponents, who more or less depended on royal patronage. On the other hand the Sassanian aristocracy aligned with the Zoroastrian clergy was steeped in pleasures burdening the downtrodden masses with heavy taxes and oppression.

At the other end was the Byzantine World, which though claiming to profess a divinely revealed religion had in fact polluted the monotheist message of Prophet Jesus (a.s.) with the sediments of ancient Greek and Roman pagan thoughts, resulting in the birth of a strange creed called Christianity. Way back in 381 A.D., the Greco-Roman Church council had declared as heresy, the doctrine of Arius of Alexandria, to which most of the eastern provinces of the empire adhered, and in its place the council had coined the absurd belief that God and Jesus are of one substance and therefore co-existent. Arius and his followers had held the belief in the uniqueness and majesty of God, Who alone, they said has existed since eternity, while Jesus was created in time.

Throughout the 5th and 6th centuries the church continued to be racked by a myriad of controversies over its illogical attempts to define the alleged dual (divine and human) nature of Jesus in the light of Greek mythology and Persian Mithraism, the influence of both of which was quite visible on the Christian church. In addition, weirder beliefs like Holy Ghost, God-Mother (Mary) and Trinity cropped up which caused trouble in Syria, Egypt and North Africa, where the Monophysite Christians held ‘god the father’ to be infinitely superior to ‘god the son’. In short, terror, oppression and sectarian persecution were the order of the day in Christendom.

Scattered here and there across West Asia and North Africa were colonies of Jews, to whom several outstanding Messengers had been sent by the Almighty. But these divine favors had failed to reform the crime hardened Jews, whose very name had become synonymous for treachery. They had long deviated from the commandments of Allah, distorting the laws brought by Prophet Moses (a.s.), tampering with divine scriptures, slaying prophets and in the end coining the chauvinist creed called Judaism. It was more a racial sedition rather than a set of beliefs and the Israelites’ vehement opposition to the last great reformer, Prophet Jesus Christ (a.s.), was still fresh in the minds of the people.

Further to the east lay the once flourishing cultures of China and India, which were now groping in the dark. Confucianism had confused the Chinese, robbing their minds of any positive thinking.

The Sui dynasty (581-618) espousing the cause of Buddhism had plunged China into a blood bath. If Buddhism was never intelligible to the masses, Taoism the religion of the former court was even more remote and expensive to practice looking like a huge complex of rites, cults and strange rituals. The victims of these feuds were of course the poor masses, bewildered as ever and seething under oppression.

In the subcontinent, the fabric of the Indian society was in even more shambles. Hinduism and the absurd philosophy of the caste system it preached had created watertight compartments between the human races reducing the so-called lower classes to the ranks of mere beasts of burden.

Hinduism had no universal pretensions whatsoever, and had evolved and was peculiar to the geographical confines of India, or more properly Northern India and its Aryan invaders. Conversion of foreigners was difficult because one had to be born in a particular caste and it was the mystery of ‘Karma’ that determined one’s fate.

In addition, India presented a confusion of castes and creeds and a pantheon of idols more weird and in erotic postures than found anywhere else. Tantric rites including demon worship, sacrifice of humans and possibly cannibalism were the order of the day. No intermarriage, no interliving, burning of the widows on the dead husband’s pyre, exploitation of the so-called lower class women dedicated to temples as devdasis but whose actual work was to satisfy the carnal desires of the priests, were some of the sordid affairs in practice.

Outside the periphery of the civilized world, beyond the River Jexartes in the endless steppes of Central Asia, dwelt the marauding Turks and other related tribes. They adhered to the magical rites of Shamanism and ancestor worship.

Africa, beyond the Sahara was steeped in animism while in Europe bands of barbarians such as Avars, Bulgars, Germans, and Franks etc. wandered around pillaging what remained of the Roman civilization.

In short, wars, bloodshed, slavery, oppression of women and the deprived held sway everywhere. Might rule right. The world was in dire distress but no one seemed around to deliver it from darkness. No religion, ideology, creed or cult could offer any hope to the agonies and frustrations of humankind.

None of the religions in currency had any universal outlook or even pretensions and were limited to insurmountable geographical and psychological barriers, preaching discrimination and the narrow-minded superiority of a particular race.

Thus it was in such a chaotic state of depression that Almighty Allah sent His last great Prophet, with the universal Message of Islam to save mankind from disbelief, oppression, corruption, ignorance and moral decadence that was dragging humanity towards self-annihilation.

The Meccan Society

The society at obscure Mecca where Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) opened his eyes was rife with vices and oppression. It was as barren as the harsh Arabian landscape, with declining morals, rising perversion, ignorance and poverty. Like the rest of Arabia it was polytheist in nature, deeply engrossed in the worship of a multitude of idols.

The Meccan society roughly speaking was divided into three classes as follows:
1. The Arrogant Wealthy:

In their hands was vested the wealth, authority and leadership of Mecca, and it was this class which vehemently opposed the Messenger of Allah and his call to Islam. They terrorized and forbade people from believing him, for fear of losing their unjust hegemony over Mecca. To this class belonged Abu Jahal, Abu Sufyan, Abu Lahab, Walid bin Mughira, Uqba bin Abi Moayyit, Aas bin Wael Sahm and others, who had built up large fortunes by oppression and foul means.
2. The Deprived (slaves and the oppressed):

This class was composed of the downtrodden like Ammar and his parents Yaser and Sumaiyya, Bilal the Abyssinian, Suhaib the Roman, Khabbab bin Arat and etc., who all eagerly hastened towards the call of Islam, because they found it to be the truth and a way of deliverance from oppression, slavery and disbelief.
3. The General Public:

These were neither part of the landed oligarchy nor were subjected to slavery. They could well be termed the middle class. Affiliated to their respective tribal chiefs or clan heads they blindly followed the path chosen by their leaders.

Thus since the Islamic Da’wah (call) strives for justice and equality among the human race, removing the artificial barriers of class set up by ‘Jahiliyyah’, the tyrants and oppressors did all they could to stop its eventual spread. Sensing that its Monotheist message, preaching submission to the One and Only Creator and forsaking the worship of idols and man-made images, would bring and end to their domination over Mecca, the pagan Quraish, decided to gang up against Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).

Birth and Ancestry

Muhammad (s.a.w.) was born at Mecca in the year 570 A.C. known in the annals of Arabian history as the ‘Year of the Elelphant’ because of a miraculous event. That year Abraha the Christian governor of the Abyssinian king who had already subdued Yemen, marched upon Mecca with a huge army of elephants. His intention was to destroy the Ka’ba and shift the center of pilgrimage to San’a, where he had built an imposing church. But the very moment Abraha’s awesome army was poised for the attack, the Almighty sent a swarm of flying creatures, who blackened the sky pelting the mighty force with pebbles, and within minutes destroyed elephants and warriors alike. Thus Almighty Allah humbled the arrogantly ignorant by means of an obscure creature.

Muhammad (s.a.w.) was born on the eve of 17th of the lunar month of Rabi-ul-awwal and according to some versions on the 12th of the same month. His father was Abdullah the son of Abdul Muttalib the son of Hashim and his mother Amina was the daughter of Wahab. His grandfather Abdul Muttalib had many wives and children, out of whom Abdullah and Abu Talib were from the same mother. Thus Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was a scion of the noble Bani Hashim clan a sub-division of the large Quraish tribe, descended from Prophet Ishmael (a.s.) the elder son of Prophet Abraham (a.s.).

He was a posthumous child, as his father Abdullah had died three months before his birth, while on a visit to Yathrib (Medina). The birth of the orphan turned the grief of the bereaved family into unbounded joy, and none were happier than his mother Amina and grandfather Abdul Muttalib, who were in a state of shock at Abdullah’s untimely death. The family burst into happiness, slaughtering sheep and throwing a grand banquet for the Quraish, to celebrate the auspicious occasion. Mecca overflowed with joy as throngs of people flocked to Abdul Muttalib’s house to congratulate him on the birth of his grandchild.

The Upbringing of the Prophet

As was the custom in those days, babies of noble families were normally entrusted to the care of strong and healthy wet nurses, who not only gave suck but also taught their wards manners and etiquette. The young Muhammad (s.a.w.) was accordingly put under the care of a noble wet-nurse called Halima bint Hareth As-Saadiyah, who brought him up along with her own children; Abdullah, Eisa and daughter Shaima. (A deep affinity developed between the Prophet and his foster brothers and sister, and later in life they also accepted Islam.).

After four years Halima brought back the child to his mother and grandfather. Everyone was happy as the toddler started to grow up into a pretty, sober and intelligent boy, marked out from the rest of the children by his suave manners and loved and admired by all.

Mother and Grandfather Die:

At the age of six, his mother took him to Yathrib to visit her family. Umm Aiman their maid accompanied them on the journey. At Yathrib, the young boy saw the grave of his father, whom he had never seen in life. What a moving scene it may have been when mother and son, set eyes on Abdullah’s grave!

After a short stay in Yathrib they started back, but on the way Amina became seriously ill. The party stopped to nurse her but her condition became worse and finally she breathed her last and was buried at a place called Abwa, situated between Mecca and Medina. The child was naturally sad at loosing his only surviving parent, at the tender age of 6. Now he was an orphan on both sides and alone in this wide world. But Almighty Allah is Great and Omnipresent and He alone decrees destinies. Umm Aiman escorted Muhammad (s.a.w.) to Abdul Muttalib, who was shocked on hearing news of his daughter-in-law’s sudden death. The doting grandfather took upon himself the task of bringing-up the young orphan; never letting him feels the slightest discomfort. But there was yet another shock in store for Muhammad (s.a.w.), for when he reached the age of 8, he lost his loving grandfather too.

Abu Talib Assumes Guardianship:

Before his death, Abdul Muttalib instructed his son Abu Talib to see his orphaned grandson’s upbringing. Accordingly, Abu Talib gladly assumed guardianship of his nephew and took young Muhammad (s.a.w.) under his roof. Abu Talib and his wife Fatimah bint Asad raised the orphan as their own child, never making him feel the slightest thought of being a destitute. They loved him dearly and he loved them in turn. In later years he was often heard saying that Fatimah bint-Asad, (the mother of Imam Ali) was like a mother to him.

The Prophet’s Marriage

Muhammad (s.a.w.) grew up in his loving uncle’s house, blossoming into a handsome youth of exceptionally good character, which marked him out from rest of the young Meccans. He soon began to assist Abu Talib in trade and commerce and once accompanied his uncle’s trading caravan to Syria, ably revealing his talents and integrity. His honesty and reputation preceded him and sometime after his return to Mecca he took up a trading job with one of the wealthiest and noblest Quraishite women, Khadija bint Khuwailid. He accepted to work for Khadija and was entrusted with some money, with which he busied himself in commerce. He again traveled to Syria and made great profits for Khadija during the trip.

Naturally Khadija was pleased and soon came to admire Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) intelligence and honesty. Eventually she offered her hand in marriage, which was accepted by him. This event took place in the month of Shawwaal. Muhammad (s.a.w.) thus married Khadija and they lived a harmonious life full of love, cooperation and sincerity, sharing each other’s joys and sorrows. They formed a perfect husband and wife pair, the likeness of which is something rare in human history. When finally the Divine Message was revealed to Muhammad (s.a.w.), the devout Khadija at once believed in her husband without ever expressing the slightest doubt. She was the first among women to accept Islam and subsequently put all her vast wealth and property at the Prophet’s disposal for the spread of truth and justice.

Khadija bint Khuwailid was from the Quraish tribe and was born and bred in Mecca. Even in the days of Jahiliyyah she was known among the Quraish women for her nobleness of character and virtue, that is why she was called by the Meccans as Tahera ‘the pure’. She married Muhammad (s.a.w.), 15 years before revelation came to him from Allah. As long as she was alive the Prophet never took a second wife and even in later years of his life after numerous marriages, he used to cherish her loving memory and refer to her as the most beloved of his spouses. She endured with him hunger, poverty and calamities inflicted by the Meccan polytheists. She bore Muhammad (s.a.w.) many children, all of whom except for Fatima (a.s.) died in infancy, including son Qasim (Khadija bore the Prophet one more son named Taher, who also died in infancy. Later in life Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) had another son named Ibrahim through his Egyptian wife Maria Qibtia, who also died in infancy. Hence, the Prophet’s progeny survives today through his daughter Fatima and her two sons Hasan and Husain who are the ancestors of all ‘Seyyids’ (descendants of the Prophet).), from whom the Prophet’s Kunya (agnomen) ‘Abul Qasim’ is derived.

Finally in the tenth year of the Prophetic mission, shortly after the small Muslim community quarantined by the heathens in Shi’ab Abi Talib had come out of the valley, Khadija breathed her last. It was a great tragedy for the Prophet. The year is known as the Year of Grief in history because the Prophet suffered a further blow that year losing that other great benefactor, his uncle Abu Talib.

Truthful and Honest

Muhammad (s.a.w.), right from his childhood was known for his virtue and lofty conduct and was far removed from the prevalent vices of the day like idolatry, dishonesty, drinking, gambling, cowardice etc., which were the hallmarks of the Meccan society. His noble character stood him out as the most impeccable one-ever, to the point that his people called him as-Sadiq (the Truthful) and al-Amin (the Honest). They put their complete trust in him and always turned to him as an impartial judge in their frequent disputes.

He was a born believer whose heart was free from the filth of disbelief and polytheism. Never had the boy been near idols let alone worshipping them. The All-Knowing Allah, Who had singled out the child for the greatest task and blessings that lay ahead, had inspired Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) young heart with His Greatness, Power and Majesty. His pristine purity was indicative of his future greatness, for how could people believe in him and put their trust in him if they see him prostrating before man-made objects and indulging in vices like any ordinary Arab of the day. Surely, none would have responded to his call to Islam, towards virtue and towards deliverance from oppression, and none would have believed him if they were not sure of vouchsafing his truthfulness and honesty.

Thus Divine providence was at work, right from the beginning in his case, grooming, inspiring and educating the young Muhammad (s.a.w.) and finally introducing him as a model of emulation and messenger for all of mankind.

Muhammad (s.a.w.) The Good News of the Prophets

It is now clear that both Judaism and Christianity had completed their historical missions, for the process of abrogation and perfection is a natural matter with respect to the divine laws. It was known that humanity should resort to another divine law in accordance with the divine will. In addition to that, both religions had been distorted and tampered with. So, logically and with respect to following the revealed path, it is irrelevant to adopt them as ways of life. The substitute is Islam, the promised divine faith for all mankind. It is the faith about which the prophets Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus) (a.s.) gave good news.

Should seekers of truth be certain of the fact that Muhammad (s.a.w.) was the Prophet promised by Musa, and Isa (a.s.), and that he was mentioned in the Old and New Testaments, this would constitute a miracle pertaining to him and be confirmation of his prophet hood. It rests as a proof on the Jews and Christians who believe in the Pentateuch, the Bible and Pre-Islamic history.

Humanity was waiting for the advent of a new prophet. The Qur’an argues with the Jews and Christians on this point and reminds them of this fact:

“And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah’s curse is on the unbelievers.” Holy Qur’an (2: 89)

The Pentateuch and the Bible did mention the characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), the place of his appearance and his message. A great number of Jewish and Christian religious scholars, at the time, embraced Islam, and believed in the Prophet (s.a.w.), because they found his name and attribute in the Pentateuch and the Bible. The Qur’an drew their attention to this fact and called on them to return to the Pentateuch and the Bible:

“Those who follow the Messenger-Prophet, the Ummi, whom they find written down with them in the Taurat and the Injeel (who) enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes lawful to them the good things and makes unlawful to them impure things, and removes from them their burden and the shackles which were upon them; so (as for) those who believe in him and honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, these it is that are the successful.” Holy Qur’an (7: 157)

Let us, then, read the Old and New Testaments, and the works authored by the researchers and thinkers, particularly the Christian intellectuals like Professor David Benjamin Kildani (Father David Benjamin Kildani who embraced Islam and changed his name to Professor Abdul-Ahad Dawood. He was from the Kildani sect related to the Roman-Catholic Church, holding a bachelor’s degree in Theology. After embracing Islam he wrote a book under the name of Muhammad in the Holy Qur’an.), concerning the coming of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.).

“When emphasizing the character of the promised Prophet, the other prophecy, attributed to Musa (Moses), is, in any case, conducive when it speaks of the ‘the bright light of God which comes from Faran'(Faran is the wilderness of Mekkah. It is a reference to the place where the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was chosen to prophet hood. He came to Madina at the head of ten thousand warriors to conquer Mekkah. This is widely known as recorded by historians.), which is the wilderness of Makkah.
In chapter 33, of the Pentateuch the second sentence states:

“The Lord came from Sinai, and shined to them from Saer, and gleamed from the mountain of Faran. And ten thousand saints came with him. From his right hand the fire of a law for them appeared. So the brightness of the Lord is likened to the light of the sun ‘The Lord came from Sinai and shined to them from Saer.’ He gleamed with glory from Faran. He appeared with ten thousand of his followers, carrying a divine law for them in his right hand. None of the Israelites had anything to do, Christ included, with Faran. Hajar (Hagar) and Isma’il (Ismael), her son, wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. Then, they settled in the wilderness of Faran.( Abdul-Ahad Dawood, Muhammad fi al-Kitab al-Muqqaddas (Muhammad in the Holy Bible)
We read in another text:

“The other prophecy is mentioned in the Book of Isaiah, chapter 21, verses 13-17. It says: ‘this is a message about Arabia. You people of Dedan, whose caravans camp in the barren country of Arabia, give water to the thirsty people who come to you. You people of the land of Tema, give food to the refugees. People are fleeing to escape from swords that are ready to kill them from bows that are ready to shoot, from all the dangers of wars’. Then the Lord of Kedar will be at an end. The bowmen are the bravest men of Kedar, but few of them will be left.”

In another text, we openly and self-evidently read about the good news of the coming of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.):

“During that rare chance, God sent His servant, the Prophet Haggai to console those sad people. He carried with him this important message:

“I will overthrow all the nations, and Hamada will come to all nations. I will fill this temple with wealth. Such the Lord of the soldiers said. All the silver and gold of the world is mine. And there I will give my people prosperity and peace. The Lord of the soldiers had spoken.

“I had translated this paragraph from the only copy which was in my possession which was borrowed from a lady who a cousin of mine. This copy was written in the national language.”

Let us return to the English translation of the Bible, which we believe to have changed the word ‘Hamada’ from the Hebrew origin to ‘Amniya’, and the word ‘Shalom’ to ‘Islam’.
The priest-professor Abdul-Ahad, who later on embraced Islam, said:

“…therefore we should view this prophecy truthful beyond question. It is identified with the character of Ahmad and his message Islam. That is because both the words Hamada and Shalom or Shalama give precisely the same meaning and have the same importance of Ahmad and Islam…in many of Christ’s statements we read the good news of the Prophet hood of Muhammad (s.a.w.) and the mentioning of his name”.
Jesus Prophecy about Muhammad (s.a.w.):

“And when Isa son of Marium said: O children of Israel! Surely I am the messenger of Allah to you, verifying that which is before me of the Taurat and giving the good news of an Messenger who will come after me, his name being Ahmad, but when he came to them with clear arguments they said: This is clear magic.” Holy Qur’an (61: 6)

“Those who follow the Messenger-Prophet, the Ummi, whom they find written down with them in the Taurat and the Injeel (who) enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes lawful to them the good things and makes unlawful to them impure things, and removes from them their burden and the shackles which were upon them; so (as for) those who believe in him and honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, these it is that are the successful.” Holy Qur’an (7: 157)

The Gospel of Jesus (a.s.) brought into sharper focus the identity of the one who would fulfill the promise to make the line of Ishmael (a.s.) a great nation. In the Gospel of John – a New Testament book which is not the Gospel of Jesus (a.s.) and which may be considered as representing only in general terms portions of his teachings. Christ informs his close companions that his work among them was drawing to conclusion, but God would send someone else after a time to carry forward the prophetic movement. This someone, however, would be the last of the prophets.

The following passages of the New Testament lend further proof to the Prophet hood of Muhammad (s.a.w.):

“And this is the record of John (the Baptist) when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, who art thou?

And he confessed and denied not; but confessed I am not the Christ.

And they asked him, what then? Art thow Elias? And he saith I am not. Art thou That Prophet? And he answered, No.

Any they asked him, and said unto him, why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither That Prophet.” John (1: 19-21, 25)

“If ye love me, keep my commandments.

And I will pray the Father and He shall give you another Comforter that he may abide with you forever.

But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

Hereafter I will not talk much with you: for the prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in me.” John (14: 15-16-26-30)

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I shall send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me.” John (15: 26)

“Nevertheless I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you.

And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgement:

Of sin, because they believe not on me;

Of righteousness because I go to my Father, and yen see me no more;

Of judgement because the prince of this world is judged.

I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.

Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come.

He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.” John (16: 7-14)

A careful study of these passages brings to light the following facts:
01. Jesus Christ (a.s.) prophesies the coming of a Comforter after him.
02. The coming of the Comforter depends on Christ’s departure.
03. He is sent by Almighty Allah.
04. He will teach everything.
05. He will draw attention towards what the Christ had foretold.
06. He will testify and glorify Christ.
07. He will not speak by himself but what he divinely hears.
08. He will foretell future events.
09. The world will follow his religion.
10. He will stay forever.

In view of these glaring facts if we cast a glimpse at the life of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) we will discover the amazing truth that these points perfectly tally with his mission and confirm beyond doubt that he is the Comforter Promised by Jesus.

The Beginning of the Prophetic Mission

Muhammad (s.a.w.), though endeared and respected by Meccans for his wisdom and virtues, preferred solitude and kept his distance from the polytheist society. Disgusted with the corruption all around, he used to retire to the Cave of Hera, in a mountain a few kilometers from Mecca, meditating Allah’s Majesty and worshipping Him. Initially he used to remain in the cave for a day or two and sometimes even 10 nights or more but the next few years saw him spending a whole month in that cave, praying to Allah and contemplating guidance for the deviated people.

Finally the day dawned which was to change the history of the world. When he had reached the age of 40 and was engrossed as usual in praying to Allah at his retreat of cave Hera., suddenly that harbinger of Divine tidings, the Archangel Gabriel, appeared with the first verses of the Holy Qur’an:

“Recite in the name of your Lord Who created, Created man from a clot. Recite and your Lord is most Generous, Who taught (to write) with the pen. Taught man what he knew not.” Holy Qur’an (96: 1-5)

With these verses, Gabriel (a.s.) announced to Muhammad (s.a.w.) that Almighty Allah had formally chosen him to be His last and final Messenger to humankind. It was in the month of Rajab.

Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) heart was filled with joy, and he thanked Almighty Allah for bestowing this great honor upon him. He hurried to his house to tell his wife Khadija about his appointment to Prophet hood.

Khadija on hearing the event at once believed in her husband’s Prophet hood and so did his young cousin Ali (a.s.). Consequently Ali and Khadija became the first ever male and female Muslims respectively. Thus started the beginning of a divine mission, which was destined not only to cleanse the Arabian Peninsula of the filth of polytheism but whose radiance would eventually dispel darkness from all over the world.

Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) formal announcement of his Prophet hood had a mixed reaction on Meccan society. While the oppressed classes hastened towards the call of Islam, happy that the day of deliverance had finally dawned, the Meccan oligarchy and those who felt a danger to their vested interests and hegemony; ganged-up to ridicule the Prophet, in their desperate bid to nip in the bud the final revelation to the human race.

Undeterred by Jahiliyyah’s arrogant attempts, Muhammad (s.a.w.) continued to propagate the great divine mission entrusted to him, and the next 23 years of his lifetime saw the gradual unfolding of the grand miraculous event; the Holy Qur’an, Allah’s own words sent down through the Archangel Gabriel. (Even today after 14 centuries, Allah’s book the Holy Qur’an stands as a living miracle for humanity. Its revelation was completed a couple of months before the Messenger’s passing away, and besides containing the ‘Shariah’ (canonical laws) for the Muslims, it is a source of knowledge goading man to contemplate and discover the mysteries of science, inspiring high ethical values and morals in its readers and showing the perfect path for mankind’s happiness both in this world and the hereafter.)

The Making of Early Muslims

Despite the feverish attempts of the Arab infidels to suppress the call of truth, the young Muslim community began to grow in numbers, as more and more people flocked to the call of Islam.

The Prophet’s mission in Mecca can thus be classified under the following two periods:

The Secret Call:

At first the Messenger of Allah called people to Islam secretly. He began with his immediate kinsmen, the Bani Hashim, explaining to them his divine mission. For three consecutive days he discoursed with them, without much success, and only his young cousin Ali (a.s.), stood up every time saying ‘I bear witness Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ The other members of his clan either mocked at him or remained silent, perhaps needing time to ponder over his words.

Without feeling the least discouraged, Muhammad (s.a.w.) continued his work, encountering individuals and inviting them to Islam. By and large, the devoted group of Muslims increased around him, and he selected a secret secluded spot, to assemble the faithful and teach them the principles of Islam and the verses of Qur’an as they were gradually revealed. When the number of Muslims had reached 40, Almighty Allah ordered His Messenger to shun the garment of secrecy and make public the invitation to Islam.

The Public Call:

As the number of committed Muslims began to grow, Almighty Allah commanded His Prophet to publicly announce the call to Islam. Some of the notable converts at this stage included Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) kinsmen such as Ja’far bin Abi Talib, Ubaidah bin Hareth bin Abdul Muttalib and etc.

The growing presence of such a strong Muslim community in their midst naturally annoyed the obstinate polytheists, who felt increasing danger to their hegemony. The infidels, who had no logic to defend their worship of man-made objects and stop the awakened masses from flocking toward the light of Islam, resorted to torture and other methods of oppression against the fledgling Muslim society. Bilal the Abyssinian, Suhaib the Roman, Khabab bin Art, and others underwent the most rigorous forms of torture at the hands of arrogant Jahiliyyah.

The Mission Continues:

Despite the hardships, the infant community of Islam stood steadfast in its beliefs. The Prophet’s wife Khadija bint Khuwailid who was blessed with a large fortune, put all her wealth and property at her husband’s disposal, to help the spread of Islam. The personality of Abu Talib Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) uncle who was respected and admired by the Quraish, was instrumental in keeping the polytheist Arabs at a distance, and they were afraid of doing any bodily harm to the Prophet. The Prophet continued to teach the young Muslim community, the divine revelations and the basic tenets of Islam. His most enthusiastic disciple and student was none other than his young cousin, Ali, who was the closest personality to Muhammad (s.a.w.).

A point to note is that while all the early Muslims were mature people and had experienced the fruits and bitterness of growing up among the idols of Arabia, it was only Ali, who entrusted to his cousin’s guardianship, years before the call of Islam, was like Muhammad (s.a.w.) of a pristine pure personality, far removed from contemporary corruption. Perhaps it was divine providence that Ali should be groomed personally by the last and greatest Messenger to mankind. Hence the young Ali imbibed all the knowledge directly from the Prophet himself.

Consequently the Da’wah (Islamic Call) of the Prophet falls into two clearly discernible periods as follows:

1. The period in Mecca, beginning with the age of 40 till his emigration to Medina 13 years later.
2. The period at Medina, beginning with the Prophet’s historical arrival till his sad demise 10 years later at the age of 63.

The Meccan Period

If the Prophet’s emigration to Medina opened new vistas for the message of Islam and its eventual expansion over the Arabian Peninsula, nonetheless the Mecca period despite the persecution and hardships, was instrumental in laying the firm foundations of Monotheism, which were to flower in Medina later on.

Briefly speaking, the major landmarks of the Islamic call in this period are explained underneath for our readers:

01. The First Revelation:

The coming of the Archangel Gabriel with the tidings of Prophet hood and the first revelation, as we have already explained.

02. Da’wat Dhul-Ashira:

The Invitation to his kinsmen the Bani Hashim to accept Islam. The event known as Da’wat Dhul-Ashira(And warn your nearest relations, Holy Qur’an 26:214) was a formal announcement of Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) mission and a turning point in the history of the divine message and its spread. Undeterred it set the tone for making of the first group of dedicated Muslims, who despite severe persecution and hardships gathered around the Prophet to assimilate the teachings and principles of Islam.

03. Isra:

The night-journey Isra as described by the glorious verses of the Holy Qur’an.
“Glory be to Him Who made His servant to go on a night from the Sacred Mosque to the remote mosque of which We have blessed the precincts, so that We may show to him some of Our signs; surely He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” Holy Qur’an (17: 1)

What is meant by Isra is the bodily ascension of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) from the Sacred Mosque (Ka’ba) to the Remote Mosque in Jerusalem (Beit-ul-Maqdis or simply Al-Qods in today’s Zionist occupied Jerusalem) and thence to the heavens to the very presence of Almighty Allah, and back to earth in a very short span of the same night. It is related that Gabriel descended one night with the heavenly mount Buraq whose speed as the name suggests is far greater than the speed of light, and took the Prophet to the highest and furthest point of the heavens where no creature has ever set foot, and thence the wonder-struck Muhammad (s.a.w.) proceeded alone to the very presence of the ‘Magnificent Light’, that only a curtain divided him from the Omnipotent Almighty. Then Allah spoke with his servant and showed him the signs of His Majesty. The event also known as Me’raj confirms that no creature ever, not even the past prophets or any heavenly being either, like the Arch-angel Gabriel, had been so near to the Almighty’s proximity, as the Habibullah (beloved of Allah) was summoned by Allah that night.

04. The First Martyrs:

The idolaters maddened at Bani Hashim and other Meccans for accepting Islam, singled out some Muslims like Bilal the Abyssinian, Khabab bin Art and Yasir, his wife Sumaiyya and their son Ammar for severe torture. Despite the barbarities inflicted, the new Muslims refused to forego their faith in monotheism and eventually Yasir and his wife Sumaiyya were savagely martyred at the hands of the infidels.

05. The Emigration to Abyssinia:

When the Messenger of Allah felt the growing danger threatening the very lives of the infant Muslim community and its helplessness against the infidels, he instructed some of them to migrate to Abyssinia. The immigrants were led by the Prophet’s cousin Ja’far bin Abu Talib, and upon arrival there, were allowed to settle and practice their faith by the Abyssinian ruler Negus.

06. Siege and Social Boycott:

Alarmed at the growing number of Muslims and fearing to do bodily harm to the Prophet, because of Abu Talib’s towering personality, the Meccan Jahilliyyah devised a plan of social boycott of the whole Bani Hashim clan. Hence a total boycott was imposed on the Bani Hashim and the new Muslims to such an extent that all links or contacts whether commercial or social, including buying or selling of goods and even matrimonial alliances were severed. But the faithful Abu Talib was determined to protect his nephew the Prophet, and together with all his clan members as well as the other Muslims retired to the valley known as Shi’ah Abi Talib on the outskirts of Mecca, where knit together they could easily override the difficulties and also protect themselves from any incursions. Steadfastly, the Muslims borne the consequences of the siege, enduring pain, hunger and other difficulties for three long years, and ultimately frustrated the infidel’s efforts, which forced Meccan Jahiliyyah to lift up the social boycott.

07. The Year of Great Grief:

Shortly after the Bani Hashim and other Muslims emerged from Shi’ah Abi Talib, a double calamity struck the Prophet. Umm al-Momineen (mother of believers) Khadija al-Kubra who had given her husband-unflinching support, sacrificing her great wealth and property for the cause of Islam, finally succumbed to the hardships and breathed her last. It was a great blow to the Prophet to lose his faithful beloved companion and the mother of his illustrious progeny. But another calamity was in store for Muhammad (s.a.w.), and three days later that another great benefactor and sincere guardian, uncle Abu Talib passed away from this mortal world.

These sad events occurred in the holy month of fasting Ramadhan, three years before the Prophet’s historic migration to Medina. Accordingly the year is known in the annals of Islamic History as the ‘Year of Grief.

08. The Retirement to Ta’if:

Aggrieved by the double loss of his loving wife and doting uncle, and faced with the prospect of renewed hostility from the Meccan idolaters, who were emboldened by Abu Talib’s death, the Prophet set out for the oasis town of Ta’if. But in Ta’if the call to Islam fell on deaf ears. No one believed in Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) invitation except an old Christian farmer called ‘Adhasu’ who embraced Islam. The Arabs of Ta’if ridiculed the Prophet, encouraging simpletons and ignorant children to pelt him with stones and obstruct his path, wherever he moved. The Messenger convinced that his divine mission would not make much progress with the stonehearted people of Ta’if, returned back to his birthplace Mecca.

09. Meeting with a Yathrib Delegation:

Even though the arrogantly ignorant Quraishites and other tribes of Mecca and Ta’if had scoffed at the message, divine providence was already at work facilitating help and the spread of Islam from hitherto unknown quarters. In the eleventh year of the Prophetic mission, Muhammad (s.a.w.) started contacts with delegations. He came across a group of people from Yathrib led by As’ad bin Zurara of the Khazraj tribe and invited them to Islam. His words received an attentive response, and the group believing in the truthfulness of this great monotheist call became very happy. The leader asked the Prophet to send a Muslim with him to Yathrib to preach Islam, and hoped that the divine call would unite his tribe with the rival tribe of Aws, knitting them into a single Muslim people.

10. The First Allegiance of Aqaba:

On returning to Yathrib the group started preaching Islam among the local people and made some progress. The next year a 12-member delegation of Yathrib Arabs came to Mecca and met the Messenger of Allah at a place called ‘aqaba’ and swore allegiance to him as Muslims. On returning to their city they started inviting people towards truth. Thus Islam began to take roots and spread in Yathrib, which was destined to be the Prophet’s seat of power and would eventually become famous as Medina – the shortened form of Medinat-an-Nabi (city of Prophet).
11. The Second Allegiance of Aqaba:

During the next year of pilgrimage following the first allegiance, 10 men and 2 women from Yathrib called on the Prophet at the same place of Aqaba and swore allegiance to him, promising to defend and spread Islam. The historic meeting was attended by the Prophet’s uncle Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib as a witness to the allegiance. The event was instrumental in spreading belief among a greater part of Yathrib citizens, who rallied to the cause of Islam as ‘Ansar’ (Helpers). Meccan Muslims to protect their beliefs now gradually started migrating towards Yathrib.

12. Conspiracy to Assassinate the Prophet:

The Meccan Jahiliyyah alarmed at the growing impact of Islam and their abject helplessness to contain its radiant rays conspired to assassinate the Prophet. Moreover, the death of Abu Talib that devoted guardian of infant Islam, had removed an obstacle from their path, embolding the haughty ignorant to plot Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) murder.

The heads of the Quraish gathered in their “Dar Al-Nadwah” to consult about the Messenger (s.a.w.). They decided to collectively assassinate him. Each tribe would send one of its men to carry out the assassination at night, thus laying the blame of the proposed murder on no one tribe. But Meccan arrogance had reckoned the whole thing without taking into account the Omnipotent Creator Who is always watching over peoples words and deeds and is even aware of the thoughts they entertain.

The Almighty Allah sent Arch Angel Gabriel (a.s.), to inform Holy Prophet of the dirty plot. “And when those who disbelieve plot against you (O Muhammad) to wound you fatally, or to kill you, or to drive you forth; they plot, but Allah (also) plots, and Allah is the best of plotters”. Holy Our’an (8:30)

As commanded, the Prophet asked his faithful cousin Ali (a.s.) to sleep in his bed that night and cover himself with the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) garment, and himself set out for Yathrib taking along one of his companions, the aged Abu Bakr, whom for some reasons he considered it unwise to leave behind at Mecca. Imam Ali (a.s.) asked if by doing so the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) would be safe. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) confirmed that he would. Imam Ali (a.s.) without further comment agreed to act as a decoy. Then the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) left the house, and, passing through the besiegers, he recited: “And We have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and (thus) have covered them so that they see not”. Holy Qur’an (36:9)

That epoch-making night which marked a turning point in the message of Islam, Imam Ali (a.s.) lay on the Prophet’s bed as calm and composed as ever, that even the scores of infidels besieging the house and peeping through the windows, not the least suspected the real identity of the sleeper.

It is related that each Meccan tribe or clan was represented in the gang of conspirators hovering around the abode of divine revelation in their vain bid to extinguish the eternal light, even Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) own infidel uncle Abu Lahab was there claiming to represent the Bani Hashim.

At last before the break of dawn, the unholy gang, burst into the Prophet’s house, full of confidence to accomplish their dirty deed. But their all-night vigil proved as worthless as their stone-made-gods, for to their utter surprise, the figure which calmly emerged from the covers and stood facing them was the Lion of Allah, Ali (a.s.), and not whom they were seeking. Frustrated in their ungodly efforts, the infidels asked Ali the Prophet’s whereabouts, to which they received the crisp and to the point reply “Did you appoint me to watch him?” he replied. “Didn’t you say you would expel him from your town? Now he has left you…” Thus Almighty Allah protected His Prophet from the evil of the idolaters, and escorted him safely away from their very midst, without the blind-hearted Arabs perceiving the least.

The event has another significance, for it brings into sharper focus the personality of Imam Ali (a.s.) and his selfless devotion to the cause of Islam and to his cousin’s life. He dauntlessly agreed to sleep on the Prophet’s bed risking his life and limbs, If the late Abu Talib’s personality had been until recently, a deterring factor for the Meccan polytheists from harming the Prophet, now his son the brave Ali had ably filled up the vacuum, showing readiness to sacrifice his own life for Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) sake. Almighty Allah rewarded Ali’s selfless spirit of devotion by revealing the following verses of the Qur’an: “And among people is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah…” Holy Qur’an (2: 207)

Thus the Almighty brought the stratagem of the plotters to naught. By the time the Meccan infidels recovered from their shock, the Prophet was safely out of Mecca and on his way to Yathrib. Cautious, not to be overtaken by the conspirators lest they start the chase, the Prophet along with his companion Abu Bakr, took refuge in a cave of a mountain called Thawr, three miles south of Mecca. The Quraish hastily set out to trace the Prophet, and a party of unbelievers arrived at the very cave of Thawr. Strangely, just as the idolaters neared the place, Abu Bakr, perhaps sensing danger suddenly started crying. His unwarranted cries – had not Almighty Allah descended tranquility on him that very moment making him tight-lipped, would have been enough to lead the Quraish party to the Prophet’s hide-out, periling the whole brave selfless episode. The polytheists arrived at the cave’s mouth with an expert tracker and looked everywhere around, but by Allah’s command a spider had spun a cobweb over its entrance and a bird had come and laid eggs, presenting the semblance of an undisturbed virgin spot, where no soul had ventured of late. The conspirators did not think that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) could be behind flimsy threads it had woven. Thus, they were misled.

Satisfied that no one was in the cave, the unbelievers turned back giving up all hope of finding the Prophet. Thus the Prophet safely proceeded to Medina. The Hijra (Migration) to Medina also marks the start of the Muslim Lunar Calendar and according to historians it took place on the 1st of Rabi-al-Awwal.

Then, under the protection of the dark night, Imam Ali (a.s.) and Hind bin Abu halah, hurried to the grotto to see the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.). The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) discussed with Imam Ali (a.s.) what he should do during his emigration to Madinah. He told Imam Ali (a.s.) to stay behind in Mecca to hand the deposits of the people hack to them, and then to join him in Madinah, bringing with him Fatimah al-Zahra (s.a.) and the rest of the women of his household.

Yathrib – A Brief Description:

It was an old oasis town with plenty of springs and wells and the brush surroundings abounded with date palms, vineyards and orchards of pomegranates and other fruits. Situated 450 kilometers north of Mecca it was inhabited by the idol worshipping Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj. Certain Jewish tribes like Bani Quradha, and Bani Mugheer and Bani Qainqa’e also dwelt in Medina and had migrated to the town centuries before, to await the last Messenger of Allah, whom they found foretold in their Scriptures. Deep enmity and a constant state of internecine warfare had sapped the energies of the two idolatrous Arab tribes, who had divested each other’s wealth and properties, in their blind hatred. In addition there was no love lost between the Arab and Jewish tribes. The Jews flaunting their sacred books used to mock the pagan Arabs, saying that soon a Prophet will emerge in Arabia and come to Yathrib and will put an end to their wicked ways.

But strangely enough when Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) did finally proclaim his Prophet hood and emigrate to Yathrib, it were the Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj who renounce idolatry and accepted Islam, while the chauvinistic Jews, whose forefathers had come to Arabia, for this very occasion, rejected the Prophet. Their pretext was he was an Arab descended from Prophet Abraham’s (a.s.) elder son Ishmael (a.s.), rather than Isaac (a.s.) and therefore unacceptable to the racist Jews.

On the other hand, on Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) historic entrance into Yathrib, the Aws and Khazraj recalling the Jew’s prophecy hastened towards him and accepted Islam, burying once and for all the bloody hatchet of tribal rivalry. Almighty Allah filled their hearts with unity, which Arabia had never known before, and gathered them under Islam’s majestic banner. The Jews, treacherous as ever, turned away from Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) as they had rejected and betrayed Prophet Jesus (s.a.w.) 6 centuries ago.

Important Events in Medina

The Prophet’s entry into Medina ushers in a new phase for the divine message. Islam gaining fresh followers began to assert its strength and soon started to spread out over the four corners of the Arabian Peninsula.

In the previous chapters we have already noted that the Prophet was 53 years of age at the time of his auspicious migration. In Medina he spent the remaining 10 years of his life and it was here that other brilliant aspects of his immaculate personality became fully manifest. The divine call now entered a decisive stage and many important events took place in Medina, which eventually laid a firm foundation for the spread of Islam to the furthest reaches of the globe. Here we shall study some of the major landmarks in the life of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) and Islam at Medina.

01. The Building of the First Mosque:

The entry into Medina was followed by the building of the mosque, the first-ever for the Muslims who had just emerged from years of oppression in Mecca. It was one of the most important landmarks for Muslims who now had a center of their own for open uninhibited gatherings, a school for learning the Qur’an and a headquarters for receiving necessary instructions from their leader. Gone were the days of secret underground meetings in Mecca, where the fear of persecution had always weighed heavily for the faithful. Yathrib, which from now onwards was Medinat-an-nabi (city of the Prophet) or Medinat-al-Munawwara (illuminated city), provided a free open atmosphere for the growth of the true faith.

Meccan Immigrants mixed with the local populace, the ‘Ansar’ (Helpers), and cheerfully started giving shape to Islam’s first-ever mosque, which would be known as Masjid-e-Qeba’a. The building was soon constructed of clay and tree trunks with palm leaves serving as a thatched roof. The Messenger of Allah himself took part in the construction and the following year he enlarged its precincts to cover an area of 2475 square meters.

All Muslims enthusiastically assembled there for the daily prayers, which were led by the Prophet himself. He used to deliver sermons there, teach the Qur’an and the laws of Islam to the faithful, discourse with his companions, prepare them for ‘Jihad’ (holy struggle) and would look into their problems and other relevant issues. Thus, the Mosque was actually the headquarters of the first-ever Islamic state established by the Messenger. It still stands majestically today, frequently enlarged and beautified throughout the last fourteen centuries, and draws millions of Muslims from all over the world.

02. Fraternization:

The second important step taken by the Prophet in Medina was the fraternizing of ‘Muhajireen’ (Meccan Immigrants) with the ‘Ansar’ (Medinite Helpers) in the bonds of Islamic brotherhood. He fraternized each Muhajir with an Ansar, joining them together as brothers in faith. And he himself clasped the hand of his beloved cousin Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) as the supreme symbol of brotherhood, fraternity and solidarity in the Islamic society.

Before proceeding further let us say a few words about the Muhajireen and the Ansar, who formed the pillars of the Islamic State. Allah, the Exalted describes them in the Qur’an as follows:
“And as for the first and foremost of the Muhajireen (emigrants) and the Ansar (helpers), and those who followed suit in good deeds; Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him; and He has prepared for them gardens watered by running streams, therein dwelling forever; that is a supreme triumph.” Holy Qur’an (9:100)

The Muhajireen as the name suggests were the Muslim emigrants from Mecca who had followed the Prophet to Medina to safeguard their faith and to escape persecution from the infidels. They had embraced Islam in its early formative years and most of them had steadfastly endured severe pain and hardship in the way of liberty, truth and justice.

On the other hand, the Ansar were the indigenous inhabitants of Medina, who believed in the Message of Islam and rallied to the help of the Prophet. They welcomed him to their city, and fought alongside him against the pagans of Arabia. It was their faith and selfless devotion, which cemented Islamic unity and brought many a glorious victory for Islam.

At the time of the Hijra most of the Muhajireen were poor and possessed nothing, but the Ansar displaying the finest example of Islamic brotherhood, provided them with their needs such as houses, money and food. They lodged them in their own houses, shared their wealth with them and gave their daughters in marriage to the Meccan Muslims.

Such were the Muhajireen and the Ansar – brothers sharing food, clothing and residence, and defending and helping each other as ordered by the Almighty. From them we learn patience, self-sacrifice, fraternity, piety and devoted zeal to spread the call of Islam to less fortunate peoples around the world.

03. The Islamic State:

The other important event after the Hijra was the establishment of the Islamic State and Government by the Prophet, who by applying the gradual unfolding of divine commandments molded the hitherto ignorant Arabs into a real Islamic society. Expounding the eternal miracle of the Holy Qur’an and setting his own divinely inspired personality as a practical example, he firmly erected the pillars of justice and virtue. In short, Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) presented to the dark world seething under tyranny and oppression, the most perfect ever constitution – spiritual, social and political – and a key to their salvation both in this mortal life and the hereafter.

04. Jihad:

The next stage was jihad or holy struggle, a thing not known in Mecca. It was the natural consequence to the setting up of a state. Unbelievers, ever-intent to stamp out the divine call but seeing Islam finely knit unto a secure city-state, resorted to arms, and the Muslims had to follow suit to defend their faith, and according to Allah’s injunctions went out to do battle with the aggressors.

The first ever battle between Islam and blasphemy occurred in the second year of the Hijra at a place called Badr in which the newfound Islamic State, assembling a modest force of only 313 Muslims defeated a vastly outnumbering army of disbelievers. The victory led to many other battles and skirmishes with the Meccan infidels, who each time came out in larger numbers to avenge their previous setbacks, but by Allah’s Grace suffered defeat after defeat at the hands of the faithful.

The victories brought strength and courage to the Muslims and helped facilitate the spread of Islam and monotheism to the farthest reaches of polytheist Arabia.

05. End of Jewish Plots and Treacheries:

Ever since the Prophet’s entry into Medina, the treacherous Jews had vehemently opposed him and his Islamic call, evoking memories of their hostility to the previous Prophet, Jesus Christ (a.s), half a millennium ago. The crafty Jews entered into an alliance with the polytheist Quraish in a bid to stamp out Islam. They conspired to kill Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) despite the fact that he was lenient towards them and had treated them kindly, hoping to convince them of Islam’s truth. But eventually as Jewish plots and aggressions increased, he had no choice other than to take up arms against them, in order to protect Islam and the Muslims. At the battle of Khaiber, which is famous for Imam Ali’s (a.s.) heroic exploits, the Prophet defeated them ending Jewish intrigues and conspiracies in Arabia.

06. The Treaty of Hudaibiyah:

Another important landmark in the Prophet’s life and progress of the Islamic call was the treaty of Hudaibiyah.

One night Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) had a dream in which he saw that he and his companions were entering the precincts of the Holy Ka’aba in Mecca to perform the ‘Tawaf ‘(circumambulation), but the infidel Arabs were trying to obstruct their entrance. Following the dream, he decided to go to Mecca with some 1,500 Muslims to perform the pilgrimage. It was in the sixth year of the Hijra, and when the party arrived at a place called Hudaibiyah, the infidels confronted them and blocked all routes to Mecca. After some deliberations the infidels and the Prophet concluded a treaty, stipulating that the Muslim party would for the moment go back to Medina, but would return the next year for performing the pilgrimage. There were some other terms too.

As per the treaty the Messenger and his companions turned back to Medina, but the next year the Prophet along with a group of Muslims entered Mecca – 7 years after his historical migration – to perform the Umrah ritual (the lesser pilgrimage). Thus, his dream came true, and it was another undeniable proof of his prophet hood.

07. The Conquest of Mecca:

Next followed the great event in the history of Islam, which was the conquest of Mecca, the then bastion of ignorance and disbelief. With it, idolatry was purged from the greater part of Arabia once and for all, and Allah’s Sacred House the Ka’ba was cleansed of the filth of man-made objects. The event took place during the month of Ramadhan, in the year 8 A.H. and Mecca was liberated without a fight. Almighty Allah instilled the hearts of the idolaters with such fear that when Abu Sufyan, the leader of the infidels, and his men, saw the Muslim forces they were struck with awe and meekly surrendered. Thus the Messenger and his companions entered Mecca triumphantly, smashed the idols, performed the Tawaf, and returned to Medina.

The conquest of Mecca and the purging of idols from Holy Ka’aba proved a great victory for Islam. Following the event, which is famous for Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) magnanimity towards his archenemies the Meccan pagans, who all accepted Islam, people started embracing the true faith in multitudes.

08. Monarchs, Heads of State and Tribal Chiefs Invited to Islam:

Allah bestowed victory upon His Prophet in his many battles, and the Muslims were now strong. Since the light of Islam had expelled ignorance from the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula, the Messenger of Allah now felt it his duty to enlighten neighboring peoples about the truth of Islam. Accordingly he sent envoys to the Emperors of Persia, Byzantine and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and to other heads of state and tribes inviting them towards guidance and reform. Some accepted, some gave polite ‘diplomatic replies’, while some others such as Chosroes of Persia were arrogant enough to betray their ignorance, by haughtily tearing the letters from the ‘Mercy to the worlds’.

09. Event of Mubahala:

Among the messages which the Prophet (s.a.w.) sent to kings and heads of state inviting them to Islam, was the one addressed to the Christians of Najran in Yemen. On receiving the letter the Christians refused to accept Islam but however decided to come to Medina to challenge the Prophet and to defend their deviated belief in the divinity and purification of Prophet Jesus (a.s.).

In Medina, the Prophet presented them with proofs and facts about Islam’s eternal truth, citing references from the previously revealed Scriptures, but the Christians irrational obstinacy prevented them from seeing the manifest truth. In the end the two parties decided to meet at an open place and invoke divine curse and punishment upon the lying side. Allah thereby ordered His Prophet to take along with him his immediate family to the meeting ground for the Mubahala (means to invoke Allah’s curse upon the lying side when two parties are contesting for truth).

“And whoso disputes with you concerning this after the knowledge that has come to you, say: Come now, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us earnestly pray for Allah’s curse upon the ones who lie.” Holy Qur’an (3:61)

The Christian elders came to the venue with their whole flock, and the Prophet as ordered by Allah came with his immediate family-members, namely: daughter Fatimah, son in-law Ali and their two children, Hasan and Hussain. Never had the Christians seen such enlightened visages before. The moment the Chief-Priest beheld Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) and his noble family, he was filled with awe. He realized that without doubt truth was with this blessed group of five and most surely Allah will respond to Muhammad (s.a.w.) and his family’s invocation if they choose to curse and destroy the Christians of Najran. Thus the Christians backed away from the challenge of Mubahala, and wisely came to terms with the Prophet, pledging to pay an annual tribute to the Muslims.

10. The Farewell Pilgrimage:

In the tenth year of the Hijra, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) performed the Hajj (pilgrimage), with all his wives and a fairly large number of his companions.

He reached Mecca on the 4th of Dhil Hijja and was soon joined by Ali (a.s.), who hastened back from his successful missionary deputation to Yemen. During the Hajj ceremonies, the Prophet addressed a great multitude from the Mount of Arafat, in words, which are eternal to this day in the hearts of believers. After praising the Almighty, he expounded the laws and tenets of Islam and abolished all existing practices of the days of Jahiliyyah, charging the gathering to inform those not present and also to convey to posterity his eternal message.

The famous tradition called ‘Thaqalain’ was part of this sermon and we reproduce it below from ‘Sahih Tirmidhi’ for the benefit of our readers.

“I have been summoned (by Allah) and the moment is near for me to answer (to die). I leave among you the ‘Thaqalain’ (two precious things): the Book of Allah and my progeny; Allah’s Book is like a rope extending from heaven to earth, and my progeny are the Ahlul-Bait. The Merciful informed me that the two will not part with each other until they meet me at the pool (of Kawther in Paradise). I warn you against deserting them.”

11. Ghadir Khum:

After performing the Hajj, he bade farewell to his native Mecca and set out for Medina. When the great procession reached the place from where the routes of the different caravans coming from various points of Arabia normally parted, suddenly the signs of divine revelation appeared and he stopped at a place called al-Juhfa near the spring (ghadir) of Khum. The Archangel Gabriel came with the following verse in order to impress the urgency of the divine command:

“O Messenger! deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.” Holy Qur’an (5:67)

At once the Prophet ordered the whole party to be assembled, even summoning back those who had already left, for he had an important message to be delivered.

A pulpit made of camel saddles was hastily set-up. Ascending it, he delivered a sermon asking the people to be witness that he had faithfully performed the task of Prophet hood entrusted to him by the Almighty.

The multitude cried in one: “We bear witness O Messenger of Allah.”

He asked, who in their opinion was more worthy of obedience than their souls, to which they replied that Allah and His Prophet know better.

Then he said: “O people! Allah is my Maula (Master) and I am the Maula (master) of believers.”

“Verily O Prophet of Allah”, came the unanimous reply.

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) then bent down and lifting up Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) in his hands, showed him to the vast crowd and proclaimed those famous words, which guaranteed the continuation of divine leadership:

“For whomsoever I am Maula (master), this Ali is his Maula (master)…”

Thrice he proclaimed these words before descending the pulpit, relieved by having performed the great task which would save the Ummah from going astray.

The great multitude of Muslims surged towards Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.), felicitating him on his divine appointment. According to such famous scholars as Zamakhshari and Nasai, the first one to congratulate and swear allegiance (bai’ah) to Imam Ali (a.s.) was Umar bin Khattab, who later became the second Caliph.

Gabriel descended again with another revelation, showing that the Almighty was pleased with His Prophet for having excellently performed the great final mission to mankind.

“… Today have I perfected unto you your religion and completed upon you My blessings and approved for you Islam as your religion…”Holy Qur’an (5: 3)

This most important task ensured the continuity of divine guidance. Since the Prophets were divinely appointed, so should be the successors or trustees of the Prophets, especially so in the case of Islam, which is the final message to the human race.

All scholars and historians have testified that the event of Ghadir Khum did take place, and moreover books of Hadith are witness that on many and occasion, the Prophet had emphasized his cousin’s pre-eminence, over all other Muslims.

12. The Prophet’s Death:

Two months after his return to Medina, the Messenger of Allah fell ill, Medina wore a look of gloom, because for a fortnight, the Prophet of Islam was confined in bed. The dawning of 28th of the lunar month of Safar proved to be fateful, for on that day the ‘Mercy to the worlds’ although weak with fever made his way to the mosque to lead the prayers, which also proved to be for the last time. Following a brief speech he returned to the house and after giving necessary instructions to his divinely ordained successor Imam Ali (a.s.), he breathed no more. The sad day marked the end of final Prophet hood.

Allah, through His last and greatest Messenger has revealed the perfect and the most comprehensive set of laws for the entire human race, a constitution, which is capable of catering to the needs of all generations till doomsday. Now the need for further revelations will no more arise, for the Almighty in His eternal Wisdom has embodied each and everything in the Holy Qur’an and taken upon Himself the responsibility of guarding it from interpolation. Moreover the Prophet practically showed the implementation of divine laws. The Qur’an together with the Prophet’s Sunna (traditions) is to remains a guiding light for all mankind, and to ensure their correct meaning and application, Allah granted the leadership of the Ummah to the Prophet’s infallible household, the Ahlul-Bait, who are the torch bearers of guidance for all Muslims.

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was laid to rest in his mosque, and an aggrieved Imam Ali (a.s.) performed the last rites of his noble cousin and father-in-law. His daughter Fatima and her two sons survived him.

Today the grave of the Prophet is the site of pilgrimage and veneration for Muslims from all over the globe.

Glimpses of the Prophet’s Conduct

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the finest example of a perfect man in every sense of the term. He was a paragon of virtue and is the best exemplar for the human race. The Almighty distinguished him from all and sundry by instilling embling in his sublime personality such fine qualities as modesty, truthfulness, kindness, patience, loyalty, honesty, courage, bravery, generosity, magnanimity, wisdom and the like. By studying his lofty character and the amazingly simple life he led with his household, companions, wives and others. We are apt to learn valuable lessons from his conduct and accordingly mould our own life-style.

Our society could never be an Islamic one unless we sincerely tread the footsteps of Allah’s final Messenger to mankind, heed his sayings, observe his glorious actions and attitudes, and most important of all follow them, as the faithful among his companions did.

In short, Allah the most Glorious enjoins upon us to take the Prophet’s behavior as an example, because he guides us to virtue and righteousness:

“Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much.” Holy Qur’an (33: 21)

Now, we shall study some aspects of his admirable character:

Contemplation and Wisdom:

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) always used to contemplate the Greatness and Majesty of Allah, the Glorious and the welfare of the human race. He closely followed the affairs of his people and the spreading of the light of Islam. He talked only when necessary and when he did, his speech was devoid of any rhetoric and unnecessary words. It was precise, to the point and full of great meanings.

Punctuality and Daily Schedule:

He was punctual, active and energetic, and led an orderly life in the strict sense of the word. His day was divided into four periods:
1. A time for worship.
2. A time for his household (Ahlul-Bait) and wives, during which he behaved like any ordinary family man giving the finest example of social behavior.
3. A time for rest and contemplation.
4. A time for public affairs such as receiving Muslims, looking into their needs and requirements, answering their questions, teaching them the tenets of Islam and expounding to them the glorious verses of the Holy Qur’an.
Following are some of his wise sayings on the importance of time:
Blessed be my people for their early rising up.
Too much sleep does away with both religion and the world.

O People, you have certain (special) characteristics, so get to (emphasize) them and you have an end, so get to (be prepared for) it… a servant of Allah should take (make provisions) for himself from his self: from his world (life) for his hereafter, during his youth before his old age, and in life before death. By the One in whose hand is Muhammad’s soul after death there will be no blaming, and after this world there is nothing except Paradise or Hell.

Modesty and Simplicity:

He was the finest embodiment of modesty, and deeply abhorred arrogance and haughtiness. Almost all of his companions in the early days were poor and oppressed people, as he was the champion of the downtrodden and the defender of the deprived masses.

His house was simple and modest, built of clay bricks, palm leaves and trunks. His food was simple like that of the poor, consisting mostly of barley bread. There were occasions when he might skip that meager meal too. He socialized with his companions as one of them: talking, listening, smiling and displaying a sense of humor. Sometimes he might join in their laughter to cheer their sprits up. He would visit them when they fell sick or accept an invitation for a meal irrespective of whether the person concerned was poor, a slave or any other. In case a companion of his died, he used to participate in the funeral procession, walking alongside the bier.

Owing to his great modesty, he normally preferred riding a mule while moving around, using a saddle made of date-palm fiber. Sometimes he also rode his she-camel. If he was riding and somebody wished to accompany him on foot, he would ask him either to mount behind, and if the man declined out of respect, he would ask him to go ahead and await him at the fixed place, because he did not like the sight of people following him on foot, while he himself was mounted.

So modest was he that he hated to see people raising to their feet when he entered an assembly. And on entering he used to sit at the nearest vacant spot, so that his companions might not think that he was sporting an air of superiority over them. His magnetic personality drew love and respect from all. He used to sit on the ground, even while eating, and slept on the ground with a simple mat serving as his bed. He greeted even small boys, as well as women. If some man shook hands with him, he would not unclasp his hand till the other did it first.

Once, a Christian chieftain named Adi bin Hatam al-Ta’i, came for an audience with the Prophet of Islam, who happened to be sitting on a cushion. On seeing the visitor he took the cushion from underneath and offered it to his Christian guest, himself preferring to sit on the ground. This admirable display of modesty by the great Prophet so deeply affected Adi bin Hatam al-Ta’i, that the Christian chief immediately embraced Islam.

This is how Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) taught us best of morals and excellent manners. By living a simple and ordinary life and treating everybody alike with courtesy and respect, he was able to spread the light of Islam. His immaculate personality and lofty character, coupled with his honesty and wisdom, attracted multitudes of people towards truth and justice.

Kindness and Generosity:

The Messenger’s social ties with his companions portrays the most wonderful picture of Islamic brotherhood ever heard of. The following narratives give us a glimpse of his firm ties, with the society in which he lived:

Anas bin Malik, who used to frequent the Prophet’s assembly, says that whenever the Prophet missed any one of his companions for a period of three days, he used to inquire about that person, would pray for him and if he happened to be ill, would pay him a visit.

Another companion Jarir bin Abdullah, says that once the Prophet entered a house, and soon it was full of people. When Jarir went in, he found no vacant spot and therefore sat outside. The Prophet observing Jarir took a piece of his clothing, rolled it up and threw it, indicating him to spread it underneath him. Jarir says he caught hold of the clothing, put it on his face and kissed it.

The above actions of the Prophet provide us the finest example of a leader unaffected by power and position whereas when we look at the lives of despots and other petty potentates, we see them sporting arrogant airs, trying to humiliate people, and always keeping a distance from the oppressed and the downtrodden.

It will not be out of context here to cite another example from the Prophet’s life. Once a man came to the Messenger of Allah but on entering his presence, started trembling with fear. Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) seeing the visitor terribly shaken and nervous, smiled and comforted him with utmost tenderness, saying: “Relax man take it easy, I am no king but the son of a Quraishite woman who used to eat dried meat.”

How wonderfully he comforts a frightened Arab nomad, who accustomed to the days of Jahiliyyah was scared to death on entering the Prophet’s presence. This is one of the many instances, which prove that he is the Mercy for the human race and not one of those power-drunk despots who kill and terrorize Allah’s creatures.

Such supreme examples of kindness and generosity helped build a strong and coherent society and spread love and affection among the believers. Therefore it is obligatory for Muslims to learn a lesson from these admirable manners and tread the brilliant path blazed by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.). All Muslims should endeavor to acquire these lofty morals, especially those invested with power and authority, so that peace, love and harmony may prevail all around. If it is a real Islamic society, it will naturally be just and free, where everyone can defend their right and even advise those in authority if they happen to err.

Courage and Valor:

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) was second to none in Allah’s creation, beginning from Adam till eternity. He was an excellent exemplar of the noblest manners and merits including courage and bravery. His valor was a byword among his contemporaries, for he stood up gallantly against the heaviest odds, endured pain and injuries a victoriously fought, overcame and showed mercy to the stonehearted infidels of ignorant Arabia. Magnanimity is the finest form of valor and the Prophet excelled in this particular field, forgiving enemies and freeing multitudes from injustice, oppression, servitude and ignorance.

Following are some of the glimpses of his many gallant deeds:

He endured pain and sufferings for thirteen long years in Mecca, inviting people to Islam, without once being over-awed by the sheer force and numbers of arrogant Jahiliyyah. And all these single handedly without any group or supporters except his few weak but devoted followers.

After migrating to Medina he organized an army to defend against the idolaters and he himself led the faithful in many a battle against overwhelming odds, always coming out victorious. The Battles of Badr, Khandaq, Uhud, Khaibar, Hunayn and the conquest of Mecca were some of the epoch-making events.

His faithful and equally brave cousin Imam Ali (a.s.), who was the standard bearer in several decisive battles and who while defending Islam and the Prophet, sent many obstinate bullies of ignorant Arabia to the eternal fire, describes the Messenger’s bravery as follows:
“You have beheld me on the day of Badr, all of us took refuge with the Prophet (s.a.w.), and he was the nearest one to the enemy ranks. He was on that day, the bravest of us all.”

Anas bin Malik, a companion, describes the Prophet as the bravest and the most generous of all men. Anas citing an example says that one night Muslims heard loud noises coming from outside the town. Thinking it to be enemy forces they rushed out to the place from where the noises were coming but to their surprise found the Prophet of Islam at the spot well ahead of them. The incident indicates Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) valor and courage; how he sallied forth in the dark night alone to trace the source of those strange sounds, without once being scared of the enemy or whatever that lurked around.

A Perfect Family Man:

Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) is the supreme example of a family man. He was a loving husband, an affectionate father and a doting grandfather. As long as the faithful Khadija was alive, he never took another wife. Even later on in life, when he had married several women, he used to cherish the loving memory of the faithful Khadija.

His marriages were not for pleasure, but were a humanitarian means to further the cause of Islam, as is evident from the women he married. In the case of Sawda, Umm Salama and Zainab bint Khuzaima, it was to take care of poor and helpless widows well in their middle ages, while the marriage to Juwairiyah was to grant her freedom from captivity. Still others such as those to Umm Habiba, Safiya, Ayesha, Hafsa and Maimoona were meant for uniting some prominent Arab tribes, who were often at loggerheads with each other, and also to safeguard the internal political status of the newfound Islamic State. And the marriage to Zainab bint Jahsh was for the sake of enacting a new law, because she was the divorcee of his adopted son Zaid bin Hareth. As the Holy Qur’an testifies, the Prophet married her in order to put an end to the then prevalent belief that adopted sons were like real sons and that wives or widows of adopted sons were like daughter-in-laws. In short, the philosophy behind his marriages was entirely revolutionary and ushered in positive changes in ignorant Arabia.

He was an affectionate father and his only surviving child, daughter Fatima (a.s.), was dearer to him than life. His famous Hadith: “Fatima is apart of me, and whoever annoys her (in fact) annoys me,” stands as a firm testimony to this fact. History is a witness that he used to stand up to greet his daughter. Many prominent and wealthy Arabs had approached him for Fatima’s hand, but he politely refused them, and according to divine commandment married her to his faithful cousin. Ali (a.s.).

Hence Fatima and Ali were the parents of his two grandsons Hasan and Husain; through whom the continuity of the Prophet’s noble progeny has been ensured. Hasan and Husain were the apple of his eyes and he affectionately doted on them. They used to play with him and accompany him to the mosque. Once when the two grandsons were seated on his shoulders, a companion remarked: “What and excellent mount”, to which the Prophet retorted “What excellent riders too”.

Thus, Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w.) behaviour with his illustrious Ahlul-Bait (household) is a lesson for us. It was not blind love of a doting father or grandfather as some may misinterpret but was something divinely ordained as is clear from several verses of the Holy Qur’an. Therefore, it is obligatory for all Muslims to love and respect his chosen family, and adhere to their radiant path, which is the only way to save the Ummah from pitfalls. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

12 Proofs Of Prophethood

All praise and gratitude is to Allah – our Creator, Provider and the Maintainer of all the worlds.

Muslims believe that Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) was the final prophet of God, sent to the whole of mankind to call the people to worship The Creator alone, and show praise and gratitude to Him. The following are some proofs of his Prophethood.

1. Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) was raised illiterate, unable to read or write, and remained like that till his death. Among all his people, he was known as being truthful and trustworthy. Before receiving revelation, he had no prior knowledge of Religion or any previously sent Message. He remained like that for his first forty years. Revelation then came to Muhammad with the Qur’an that we have in our hands today. This Qur’an mentioned most of the accounts found in the previous scriptures, telling us about these events in the greatest detail as if he witnessed them. These accounts came precisely as they were found in the Torah sent down to Moses and in the Gospel sent down to Jesus.

2. Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) also foretold of things that would occur to him and his community after him, pertaining to victory, the removal of the tyrannical kingdoms of Choruses [the royal title for the Zoroastrian kings of Persia] and Caesar, and the establishment of the religion of Islam throughout the earth. These events occurred exactly as Muhammad foretold, as if he was reading the future from an open book.

3. Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) also brought an Arabic Qur’an that is the peak of eloquence and clarity. The Qur’an challenged those eloquent and fluent Arabs of his time, who initially belied him, to bring forth a single chapter like the Qur’an. The eloquent Arabs of his day were unable to contest this Qur’an. Indeed, till our day, none has ever dared to claim that he has been able to compose words that equal-or even approach-the order, grace, beauty, and splendor of this Glorious Qur’an.

4. The life history of this Noble Prophet was a perfect example of being upright, merciful, compassionate, truthful, brave, generous, distant from all evil character, and ascetic in all worldly matters, while striving solely for the reward of the Hereafter. Moreover, in all his actions and dealings, he was ever mindful and fearful of The Creator.

5. Allah instilled great love for Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) in the hearts of all who believed in and met him. This love reached such a degree that any of his companions would willingly sacrifice his (or her) self, mother or father for him. Till today, those who believe in Muhammad honor and love him. Anyone of those who believe in him would ransom his own family and wealth to see him, even if but once.

6. All of history has not preserved the biography of any person in the manner it has preserved the life of Muhammad, who is the most influential human in history. Nor has the entire earth known of anyone whom every morning and evening, and many times thereafter throughout the day, are thought of by those who believe in him. Upon remembering Muhammad, the believers in him will greet him and ask Allah to bless him. They do such with full hearts and true love for him.

7. Nor has there been a man on earth whom is still followed in all his doings by those who believe in him. Those who believe in Muhammad sleep in the manner he slept; purify themselves (through ablution and ritual washing) in the manner he purified himself; and adhere to his practice in the way they eat, drink, and clothe themselves.
Indeed in all aspects of their lives, the believers in Muhammad adhere to the teachings he spread among them and the path that he traveled upon during his life.
During every generation, from his day till our time, the believers in this Noble prophet have fully adhered to his teachings.
Let alone all that, all those who believe in Muhammad repeat those praises of Allah, special prayers, and invocations that he would say during each of his actions, supplicating to Allah during day and night, like: what he would say when he greeted people, upon entering and leaving the house, entering and leaving the mosque, entering and leaving the bathroom, going to sleep and awaking from sleep, observing the new crescent, observing the new fruit on trees, eating, drinking, dressing, riding, traveling and returning from travel, etc.
All those who believe in Muhammad fully perform-even to the minute detail-every act of worship-like prayer, fasting, charity, and pilgrimage-as this Noble Messenger (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) taught and as he himself performed. All of this allows those who believe in him, to live their lives in all aspects with this Noble Messenger as their example, as if he was standing before them, for them to follow in all their doings.

8. There has never been, nor will there ever be a man anywhere upon this earth who has received such love, respect, honor, and obedience in all matters-small and large alike-as has this Noble Prophet.

9. Since his day, in every region of the earth and during every period, this Noble Prophet has been followed by individuals from all races, colors and peoples. Many of those who followed him were previously Christians, Jews, pagans, idolaters, or without any religion. Among those who chose to follow him, were those who were known for their sound judgment, wisdom, reflection, and foresight. They chose to follow this Noble Prophet after they witnessed the signs of his truthfulness and the evidences of his miracles. They did not choose to follow Muhammad out of compulsion or coercion or because they had adopted the ways of their fathers and mothers. Indeed many of the followers of this Prophet (may Allah’s blessings peace be upon him), chose to follow him during the time when Islam was weak, when there were few Muslims, and when there was severe persecution of his followers on earth. Most people who have followed this Prophet (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) have done so not to acquire some material benefits. Indeed many of his followers have suffered the greatest forms of harm and persecution as a result of following this Prophet.
Despite all this harm and persecution, this did not turn them back from his religion. All of this clearly indicates, that this Prophet was truly and really Allah’s messenger and that he was not just a man who claimed prophet hood or spoke about Allah without knowledge.

10. With all this, Muhammad came with a great religion in its creedal and legal make-up. Muhammad described Allah with qualities of complete perfection, and at the same time in a manner that is free of ascribing to Him any imperfection. Neither the philosophers nor the wise could ever describe Allah like such. Indeed it is impossible to imagine that any human mind could conceive of an existing being that possesses such complete ability, knowledge, and greatness; who has subdued the creation and has encompassed everything in the universe, small or large; and possesses such perfect mercy. Nor is it in the ability of any human being to place a perfect law based upon justice, equality, mercy and objectivity for all human activity on earth like the laws that Muhammad brought for all spheres of human activity – like buying and selling, marriage and divorce, renting, testimony, custody, and all other contracts that are necessary to uphold life and civilization on earth.

11. It is impossible that any person conceive wisdom, morals, good manners, nobleness of characters as what this honorable Prophet (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) brought. In a full and complete manner, Muhammad spread a teaching regarding character and manners toward one’s parents, relatives, fiends, family, humanity, animals, plants and inanimate objects. It is impossible for the human mind alone to grasp all of that teaching or come with a similar teaching. All of that unequivocally indicates that this Messenger did not bring this religion from his own accord, but that it was rather a teaching and inspiration that he received from the One Who created the earth and the high heavens above and created this universe in its miraculous architecture and perfection.

12. The legal and creedal make-up of the religion that the Messenger, Muhammad, (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) brought resembles the engineering of the heavens and the earth. All of that indicates that He who created the heavens and the earth is the One Who sent down this great law and upright religion. The degree of inimitability of the Divine law that was sent down upon Muhammad is to the same degree of inimitability of the Divine creation of the heavens and earth. For just as humanity cannot create this universe, in the same manner humanity cannot bring forth a law like Allah’s law that He sent down upon His servant and messenger Muhammad (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him).

Muhammad Is A Direct Descendant Of Prophet Abraham

May peace and blessings be on all the Messengers of God. Prophet Muhammad is a direct descendant of Isma’il, the first son of Prophet Ibrahim(Abraham). Prophet Muhammad was born in Makkah as a fullfilment of the prayer of Abraham as explained in the following verses of the Holy Quran, a book of revelations from God to the Prophet.

002.124 And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled: He said: “I will make thee an Imam to the Nations.” He pleaded: “And also (Imams) from my offspring!” He answered: “But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers.”

002.125 Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma’il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in
prayer).

002.126 And remember Abraham said: “My Lord, make this a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits,-such of them as believe in God and the Last Day.” He said: “(Yea), and such as reject Faith,-for a while will I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of Fire,- an evil destination (indeed)!”

002.127 And remember Abraham and Isma’il raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): “Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All- Hearing, the All-knowing.

002.128 “Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

002.129 “Our Lord! send amongst them an Apostle of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”

002.130 And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world: And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous.

002.131 Behold! his Lord said to him: “Bow (thy will to Me):” He said: “I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.”