Category Archives: Ramadan

Preparation for Ramadan

Fasting

It is recommended to fast some days in Rajab and Shabaan, as it is the time during which an individual’s acts or deeds are presented before the Holy Creator. Fasting will also get the body accustomed to the physical and mental strain of fasting during the entire month of Ramadan.

Praying Nawafil and Tahajud

Praying Nawafil and Tahajood will get one used to standing for long periods of time as is the case with Taraweeh prayers. This extra worship draws a believer closer to Allah.

Reading Qur’an

Reading Qur’an is a good practice as it helps the believer come closer to Allah, subhana wa talla, through understanding and implementing His commandments.

Giving Sadaqah

Giving sadaqah has a high reward and helps create positive feelings within the ummah as the poor feel that they are looked after.

Sleeping Earlier

Sleeping earlier will make it easier for the individual to get up before fajr prayer to have suhur, in preparation for the day long fast.

Refraining from Gossip, Slander, Backbiting

Controlling the tongue is important as backbiting is not encouraged in Ramadan or in any other month. (O ye who believe!…And do not speak ill of each other Behind their backs. Would any Of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay ye would abhor it..But fear God: For God is Oft-Returning Most Merciful). Surat Al-Hujurat: Verse 12

Calling and Visiting Relatives

It is important to create positive feelings within the extended family, so taking the time to make a phone call or visiting a relative will be much appreciated.

Be Patient

Fasting teaches one patience as anger must be controlled and tempers soothed because Ramadan is a month of mercy.

Ramadan and the month of Sha’ban

Sha’ban is the name of the eighth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. It is named so because in this month the Arabs used to disperse (tasha’aba) in search of water, or it was said that they dispersed to carry out raids and forays. Others maintain that it is so called because it sha’aba (branches out or emerges) i.e. it appears between the months of Rajab and Ramadan.

Sha’ban is between Rajab and Ramadan, two very important months. Fasting in Sha’ban is a preparatory fast for Ramadan. If an individual begins fasting in Sha’ban he or she will have become used to fasting and will feel strong and energetic when Ramadan comes.

Sha’ban paves the way for Ramadan and deeds performed during this month, such as fasting, reciting from the Holy Qur’an, and giving charity, are lifted to up the Most Exalted, Allah. Habeeb ibn Abi Thaabit used to say, when Sha’baan came, “This is the month of reciters (of the Qur’aan).” When Sha’baan came, ‘Amr ibn Qays al-Malaa’i used to close his store and devote his time to reading the Qur’aan.

It is also important to fast in Sha’ban because many people do not pay attention to it, as it is between two important months. People become so preoccupied with those two that they neglect fasting in Sha’ban and according to a hadeeth, it is preferred (mustahab) to do acts of worship during a time where people are negligent.

However, to avoid adding extra days to the fast of Ramadan, fasting on the ‘day of doubt’ is prohibited. The ‘day of doubt’ is the day when people are uncertain whether Ramadan, sighting of crescent moon, has commenced or not. “Ammaar said: whoever fasts on this day has disobeyed Abu’l-Qaasim (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam)”.

Hadith 1:
Abu Hurairah (radiullaho anho) reported the Messenger of Allah,(sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam), as saying: ‘Rajab is the month of Allah. Shabaan is my month and Ramadan is that of my Ummah. Shabaan removes the sins of man and Ramadan purifies him completely.’

Hadith 2:
The messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Between Rajab and Ramadan is the sacred month of Shabaan. People are unmindful about it, yet the deeds of man are to be presented to Almighty Allah in it. It is for this reason that l desire my deeds to be presented when I am in a state of fasting.

Hadith 3:
The Holy Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) also said: ‘Shabaan enjoy superiority over the months as l have superiority over all the Prophets {peace be upon him}.

Hadith 4:
The Holy Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa salla) also said: ‘when the month of Shabaan approaches you, cleanse your souls to receive the blessed month of Ramadan. Rectify your intentions, for verily the greatness of Shabaan is like my greatness is over all the Prophets. Take heed Shabaan is my month and anyone who observes one fast in it, my intercession will become lawful for him.’

‘Aa’ishah (radiullaho anha) said: “The Messenger of Allaah, (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) used to fast until we thought he would never break his fast, and not fast until we thought he would never fast. I never saw the Messenger of Allaah fasting for an entire month except in Ramadaan, and I never saw him fast more than he did in Sha’baan.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 1833; Muslim, no. 1956).According to a report narrated by Muslim (no. 1957), “He used to fast all of Sha’baan, he used to fast all but a little of Sha’baan.”

Shab-e Baraat-The night of Acquittal:
Commentators of the Holy Quran are unanimous that the night which the Qur’an calls ‘the blessed night’ is the fifteenth night of Sha’ban. On this glorious evening, the decent of the Qur’an began from the Divine Tablet to the worldly heaven.

Some hadith regarding ‘the blessed night’ are:

Hadith 1
Mother of the believers Aisha {radiullaho anha} states that the Messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Verily Almighty Allah pervades the worldly heaven with a special glance of compassion and forgives more followers of my ummah than all the hair of the sheep of Bani Kalb.’

Hadith 2
Abu Baker Al Sideeq (radiullaho anho) says that the Messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Spend the Night of Baraat in offering nafl Prayers and observe the fast on the fifteenth day. Without doubt it is a night full of blessings and excellence. Allah Almighty proclaims on the night ‘Is there anyone who is desirous of peace and security that l may grant him peace and safety? Is there anyone who seeks sustenance that l may grant him sustenance? Is there anyone who seeks this and this, that l may grant him that? This proclamation and beneficence continue until the break of dawn.’

Hadith 3
In another Hadith it is reported that ‘the hearts of believers who keep alive the two nights of Eid and the fifteen nights of Shabaan, ie by engaging in Zikar of Allah, will not experience death on that day when every heart will be dead.

Hadith 4
It is reported by Ayesha, (radiu Allahu anha) that the messanger of Allah (sala Allahu alhi wasallam) said:”oh Ayesha! Do you know what happens on this night? i.e the night of Baraat. She answered “please inform me what takes place on this night. The master of both worlds replied:” on this night Almight Allah records all the names of those who are to be born in the coming year,and those who would be dying in it, the deeds of man are raised to Him on this night and the sustenace of man descends in it.

By Marwa Afifi

Uplifting Our Moral Character in Ramadan

During the sacred month of Ramadan, believers strive to purify body and soul and increase their taqwa, god-consciousness. This purification of body and soul harmonizes between the inner and outer spheres of an individual.

Muslims aim to improve their body by reducing food intake and maintaining a healthier lifestyle. Over indulgence in food is discouraged and eating enough to silence the pain of hunger is encouraged. Muslims should be active, tending to all their commitments and never falling short of any duty.

On a moral level, believers strive to attain the most virtuous characteristics and apply them to their daily situations. They try to show compassion and mercy to others, exercise patience, and control their anger. In essence, Muslims are trying to improve their moral character and cultivate good habits.

Morality is perfected on three levels: individual, communal, cosmic. On an individual level, a Muslim strives to adopt honesty, justness and compassion with him or herself. Being honest is important as it separates truth from falsehood and gives the Muslim a clear direction and or focus in life.

On a communal level, a Muslim strives to positively interact with other members of society, treating them with kindness and sincerity. A positive contribution should also be made to benefit the general public.

On the cosmic level, encompassing the earth, the heavens, and the Almighty Creator, the Muslim attempts to increase his God-consciousness and his or her understanding that he or she is accountable for every action. This creates a love/fear relationship which drives a Muslim to obey Allah through love of Allah, and never to invoke Allah’s wrath, for fear of Allah.

Moral Perfection

Fasting encourages not only fasting from food but also from malicious and idle talk, slandering and backbiting. Muslims are encouraged to engage in intellectual, contemplative, and peaceful conversation. They are encouraged to look at their characters and aim to improve them.

Character is the essence of one’s being or one’s inner reality. It evolves from one’s consciousness and is sustained and further developed through consistency and determination. Habits become part of a character through repetition and consistency.

Aristotle said: “You are what you repeatedly do.” Hence, habits become conditioned responses, formed through repetition, that eventually become unconscious behavior.

On the same token, Shakespeare said, “first we make our habits then our habits make us.” Thinking in a specific pattern creates a mental path which affects our attitude and behavior.

Our thoughts, following a specific mental path, affect our attitude which affects our actions. Our actions are determined by our habits, repeated forms of action, which affect our character. And our character determines our destiny.

The pursuance of taqwa (piety) and an enhanced understanding of Islam should be reflected through one’s moral character. Good habits should be cultivated and bad habits should be changed.

Good habits, rearing good results, are profitable to the Muslim in this world and in the Hereafter. Good habits will also positively affect the individual, his or her family, and society as a whole, because his or her virtuous characteristics will guide him or her to do what is right.

Bad habits, on the other hand, should be forsaken as they yield bad results. It harms a Muslim to adopt these habits both in this world and the next, because no one can benefit from such actions: not the individual, nor his family, nor the society.

Islam defines good habits, virtues, and bad habits, vices, as two forces in eternal opposition. Virtues are cultivated through conformity to Islamic ideals and principles whereas vices are cultivated through opposition to Islamic rules. Good character emanates from virtues and bad character emanates from vices.

Improving character can be achieved through overcoming bad habits. In the words of Roman orator, Cicero, ” consuetudo consuetudine vincitur = habit is overcome/ conquered by habit.

Ramadan is an ideal period for filtering out bad habits and developing a virtuous character. Such a character, as referred to by Prophet Muhammad, salla Allahu alahi wa sallam, serves as a shield against evil and wrongfulness.

As Muslims, we should all strive to nurture noble qualities and forsake bad qualities. We should learn to be more considerate, generous, patient, and compassionate. We should refrain from cursing, yelling, gossiping and being arrogant, and many other evils that we recognize all too easily.

As we undertake the physical and spiritual responsibility of fasting, we should reflect on the words of our beloved Prophet, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam. He referred to Ramadan as a blessed month in which Allah as made fasting obligatory on those who are able; whosoever denies himself of the benefits of that month denies himself many virtues.

Essay by Marwa Afifi

Taraweeh Prayers in Ramadan

Taraweeh prayers are part of the physical and spiritual exercise Muslims perform during the month of Ramadan. They are daily nightly prayers that are observed after Isha’a prayers and are carried out in congregation. The leader of the congregation recites the entire Qur’an throughout the month because it is mustahab, preferred according to the consensus of Muslim scholars. It gives the listeners a chance to hear the Holy Qur’an in its entirety and gives them a chance to reflect over its meanings.

The Messenger of Allah, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam, said: “Whoever observes night prayer in Ramadan as an expression of his faith and to seek reward from Allah, his previous sins will be blotted out.” (Muslim)
The origin of the word, Taraweeh, lies in the Arabic root, raaha, which means to rest and or relax. Taraweeh has been so named because after every four raka’ats, the early Muslims would often relax for a few minutes and then continue praying until the completion of the Taraweeh. The practice of performing Taraweeh prayers in the mosque was established by our beloved Prophet Mohammed, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam. He did not continually observe the Taraweeh prayers for fear that it would be made compulsory on all Muslims to do so throughout the Holy month of Ramadan. According to the compilations of Bukhari and Muslim, Aisha, radiu Allahu anha, has been reported as saying:

“The Messenger of Allah, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam, observed Taraweeh prayer in the mosque one night and people prayed with him. He repeated so the following night and the number of participants grew. The companions congregated the third and fourth night, but the Messenger did not show up. In the morning he told them, “I saw what you did last night, but nothing prevented me from joining you except my fear that it might be made mandatory on you in Ramadan.”

Taraweeh prayers consist of various numbers of raka’ats, ranging from 11 to 39. Aisha, radiu Allahu anha, was asked about the prayer of the Prophet, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam? She replied: “He prayed in Ramadan as well as other times eleven raka’ats.” (Muslim/Bukhari). When the Prophet, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam, was asked about Taraweeh prayers, he said “It may be done in two raka’ats, and if anyone fears the appearance of morning, he should pray one rak’ah as a witr for what he has already prayed.” (Bukhari/Muslim)

Muslims are encouraged to perform the Taraweeh prayers to increase their level of spirituality. Also, the sense of unity amongst Muslims strengthens as they meet daily in the mosque for the performance of the prayers.

Both men and women alike are encouraged to perform Taraweeh prayers in the mosque. Prophet Mohammed, sala Allahu alahi wa sallam, said: “Prevent not the women servants of Allah, from going to the masjid of Allah.”

Muslims are often moved upon hearing the recitation of the Qur’an however, it is not recommended that they cry in a loud voice. Light weeping is acceptable but loud cries may detract others from focusing during their prayer.

There are many spiritual rewards to performing the Taraweeh prayer so we should participate in them this Ramadan and actively seek the pleasure of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, Allah.

By Marwa Afifi

What breaks the fast and what does not

Section Six – That which breaks the fast and that which does not

In this section read about:
1. Sexual intercourse whilst on travel
2. Rulings regarding wet dreams in Ramadan
3. Kissing and playing with one’s wife whilst fasting
4. Ejaculated semen in foreplay with wife whilst fasting
5. Bleeding whilst fasting
6. Drops of blood flowed from nose whilst fasting
7. Blood drawn out for analysis purposes
8. Donating blood whilst fasting
9. The ruling regarding the cupper and the cupped
10. When does blood flowing out nullify the fast?
11. Vomitting whilst fasting
12. Taking an injection whilst fasting
13. Using the miswaak whilst fasting
14. Using toothpaste whilst fasting
15. The use of oil-based and liquid-based perfumes whilst fasting
16. Applying perfume on the hands, face, body and clothes
17. Using atomiser mouth fresheners whilst fasting
18. Using eye drops and ointment/liniment for the eyes whilst fasting
19. Being abusive whilst fasting
20. Backbiting and slandering whilst fasting
21. Bad speech during the month of Ramadan
22. Sleeping throughout the day whilst fasting
23. Swallowed water taking a bath, whilst fasting
24. Tasting food whilst fasting

1. Sexual intercourse whilst on travel

Question: Is it permissible for the traveller to have sexual intercourse with his wife during the day of Ramadan?

Response: In the Name of Allaah and all Praise is for Allaah. If he were a traveller or suffering from an illness which permitted him to break his fast then there is no expiation nor problem for him but, instead, it is for him to make up the day for which he had sexual intercourse with his wife. This is because the traveller and the one who is ill are permitted to break the fast, engage in sexual intercourse and the like of this. Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) has said: {(Fasting) for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) feed a poor person (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 184]. The ruling for the woman in this regard is the (same) ruling (as) for the man. So, if she were travelling or suffering from an illness which made it difficult for her to fast, there would be no expiation for her to carry out.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 439/Fatwa No.363)

2. Rulings regarding wet dreams in Ramadan

Question: If one who is fasting has a wet dream during the day in Ramadan, does this nullify his fast or not and should he perform the ritual purification (of ghusl)?

Response: If one who is fasting has had a wet dream during the day in Ramadan, then his fast is sound and is not affected by the wet dream, because he had not done so intentionally. However, it is obligatory for him to perform the ritual purification (ghusl) so as to perform the prayer. To be prompt in performing the ritual purification is better, but not obligatory, and Allaah knows best.Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 440/Fatwa No.365), also (al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa ash-Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan, Volume 3/ Page 162)

3. Kissing and playing with one’s wife whilst fasting

Question: Is it permissible for one who is fasting to kiss his wife and play with her on the bed during the days of Ramadan?

Response: Yes, it is permissible for one who is fasting to kiss his wife and play with her during the day in Ramadan. However, if he excretes semen then his fast becomes nullified. If this occurs during the day in Ramadan, it is obligatory he refrains (from all that which nullifies the fast) for the rest of the day and it is obligatory that he makes up the fast for that day. If this occurs in other than Ramadan, then his fast is nullified but it is not obligatory for him to refrain. However, if his fast was that which was obligatory upon him, then it is obligatory he make up that day. If the fast was supererogatory (naafilah), then he doesn’t have to make it up.Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 454/Fatwa No.383)

4. Ejaculated semen in foreplay with wife whilst fasting

Question: A man came to his wife during the day in Ramadan without having skin contact with her. Then he ejaculated semen. We wish to know what the ruling is for him?

Response: We inform you that your fast that day is nullified and it is obligatory that you make it up and there is no expiation for you to make as this is only particular to sexual intercourse.Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem Aal-ash-Shaykh / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 455/Fatwa No.385), also (Fataawa wa Rasaa.il Samaahatu ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem Aal-ash-Shaykh, Volume 4/Page 190-191))

5. Bleeding whilst fasting

Question: What is the ruling of the one who bleeds whilst fasting?

Response: If the person was to bleed without intention whilst fasting, then his fast is valid.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 461/ Fatwa No.394), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.12082)

6. Drops of blood flowed from nose whilst fasting

Question: The questioner says he was fasting in Ramadan and when he touched his nose some drops of blood flowed out without intention. Does this affect my fast? Is my fast that day valid or do I have to repeat it?

Response: If the situation is as you state, then your fast is valid and there is no need for you to repeat it. This does not affect your fast, Allaah-Willing.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 463/ Fatwa No.397), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.1730)

7. Blood drawn out for analysis purposes

Question: What is the ruling regarding someone who has half a measure of blood drawn out of his right arm for analysis purposes whilst fasting during the day in Ramadan?

Response: The fast is not nullified for this (analysis), rather it is exempted from. This is because it is a necessity and not from that which is known, from the pure Sharee’ah, to break the fast.Shaykh Ibn Baaz (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 465/ Fatwa No.400)

8. Donating blood whilst fasting

Question: Does donating blood during the day in Ramadan break the fast?

Response: Yes! If he donates and a lot of blood is drawn out, then he breaks his fast as it is regarded as similar to cupping (hijaamah).Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 467, Fatwa No.405)

9. The ruling regarding the cupper and the cupped

Question: Is the fast of the cupper and the cupped broken during the day in Ramadan? What is the ruling, do they continue with their fast broken or make up for that which has passed or what?

Response: The fast of the cupper and the cupped is broken and they must refrain from all that which breaks the fast, and they must make up this day. That which the Prophet said is: ((The cupper and the cupped have broken their fast)).The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 470/ Fatwa No.408), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.11917)

10. When does blood flowing out nullify the fast?

Question: With respect to blood flowing out, what are the situations in which it nullifies the fast?

Response: The fast is not nullified except by cupping according to that which is correct. There is a strong difference of opinion in this and many see that the fast is not nullified even by cupping. However, the consensus is that cupping nullifies the fast.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 476/ Fatwa No. 416)

11. Vomitting whilst fasting

Question: What is the ruling of one who vomits whilst fasting, does he have to make up his fast or not?

Response: It’s ruling is that he does not have to make it up. As for the one who intentionally vomits, then he must make up his fast, as the Prophet (saw) said: ((One who vomits, then he does not have to make it up, and he who intentionally vomits, then he has to make it up)). Transmitted by Imaam Ahmad and the Four Imaams of the Sunan (Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa’ee and ibn Maajah) with a Saheeh chain of narration on the authority of Aboo Hurayrah. Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 481/ Fatwa No. 424)

12. Taking an injection whilst fasting

Question: I took an injection in my vein during the day in Ramadan. Is my fast for this day valid or is it obligatory upon me to make up this day?

Response: If this injection was nutritional (in any form) then it nullifies the fast whether it is in the vein or other than that. If, however, it is a tranquiliser or an analgesic for pain pr that which is similar to it then this does not break the fast. Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 485/ Fatwa No. 433)

13. Using the miswaak whilst fasting

Question: What is the ruling concerning the one who fasts using a miswaak (tooth stick) after zawaal (when the sun is at its highest point and there is no shadow)?

Response: The use of the miswaak either before or after zawaal is a Sunnah as it is a Sunnah at other than these times. This is because the Hadeeth regarding the use of the miswaak is general and does not exempt the one who is fasting either before zawaal or after zawaal. The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((The miswaak is a purifier for the mouth, (and) much liked by the Lord, . . .)). Also, he (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((If it were not that I feared inconvenience for my Ummah, I would have ordered them to use the miswaak before each prayer)).Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 491/ Fatwa No. 440), also (al-Fataawa libni ‘Uthaymeen – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1 / Page 167)

14. Using toothpaste whilst fasting

Question: Is it permissible for one who is fasting to use toothpaste during the day?

Response: It is permissible for one who is fasting to use toothpaste , being careful that nothing from the solution goes down his throat. It is preferable he clean his mouth with a miswaak and other than it from that which doesn’t reach the throat, just as one should not exaggerate whilst gargling the water in the mouth during ablution (wudoo). Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 496/ Fatwa No. 445), also (al-Muntaqaa min Fatawaa ash-Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan, Volume 3/ Fatwa No. 158)

15. The use of oil-based and liquid-based perfumes whilst fasting

Question: Is it permissible to use perfume such as oil-based ‘ood and colognes and incense during the day in Ramadan?

Response: Yes, it is permissible to use them on the condition that one does not inhale the incense.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fatawaa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 499/ Fatwa No.451)

16. Applying perfume on the hands, face, body and clothes

Question: Does using liquid-based perfume from the bottle break the fast if one applies it on his hands, face, body and clothes?

Response: Using perfume in this described manner does not break the fast.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 500/ Fatwa No. 455), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘llmiyyah – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Fatwa No.9517)

17. Using atomiser mouth fresheners whilst fasting

Question: There exists in pharmacies freshners for the mouth in small atomisers. Is it permissible to use them during the day in Ramadan to remove the smell from the mouth?

Response: It is enough to use the miswaak which the Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa-sallaam) has recommended for the mouth whilst fasting rather than the atomisers for the mouth. There is no problem in using the atomiser as long as nothing reaches the throat. However, it is befitting not to dislike the odour (of the mouth) resulting from the fast, since it is indicative of obedience to Allaah as it is beloved to Allaah. It is mentioned in a hadeeth: ((The odour emmanating from the mouth of one who is fasting is more pleasant to Allaah than the smell of musk)). Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 501/Fatwa No.457), also (al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa ash-Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan, Volume 3/ Page 130)

18. Using eye drops and ointment/liniment for the eyes whilst fasting

Question: What is the ruling regarding (putting) eye drops and ointment/liniment in the eyes?

Response: It is no problem for one who fasts to apply kohl to his eyes and likewise eye drops and (also) ears drops even if he finds the taste of them (reach) his throat. This does not break his fast. This is because it is neither food or drink and nor does it constitute food or drink. Rather, the evidence prohibits eating and drinking, so that which does not constitute this cannot be regarded as such. What we have mentioned is the opinion of Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah and it is correct.Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 509/Fatwa No.469), also (Fiqh al-‘Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 191-192)

19. Being abusive whilst fasting

Question: Some people, whilst driving in their cars and they are fasting, begin to use bad language leading to the abuse of others when the traffic becomes busy. So, what is the ruling concerning their fast?

Response: As for the fast, then it is correct as the impermissible statements and actions do not invalidate the fast. However, without doubt it reduces the reward and loses its benefits and fruits. From that which is intended from the fast is fear of Allaah (Taqwah) as He (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) said: {O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become al-Muttaqoon (the pious)} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 183]. So, Allaah has explained the wisdom behind the obligation of fasting upon us and that is to attain fear of Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala). The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((One who does not abandon evil talk and actions, then Allaah is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink (i.e. his fasting)). Rather, the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) commanded the one who is fasting that, should someone curse him or attempt to kill him, he should say: ((I am fasting)) such that the one who is swearing and abusing is deterred. By this, he will know that the one who is fasting has not responded because of any weakness but, rather, because of piety and fear of Allaah because he is fasting. That which is obligatory upon the fasting person and other than him is that he be patient and persevering, not allowing these conflicting issues to affect him regardless of how he feels inside. It is confirmed from the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) that a man said: ((O Messenger of Allaah, advise me)). He (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) replied: ((Don’t become angry)) and he (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) repeated this a number of times: ((Don’t become angry)). So, how many people feel remorse at what they have done in anger, and wish that they hadn’t said or done such and such whilst angry. But that which has come to pass is not possible to take back.Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ page 517/ Fatwa No. 481), also (al-Fataawa libni Fowzaan – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1/ Page 158-160)

20. Backbiting and slandering whilst fasting

Question: Does backbiting and slandering during the day in Ramadan break the fast?

Response: Backbiting and slandering does not break the fast. However, it reduces the effect of the fast. Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) says: {O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become al-Muttaqoon (the pious)} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 183]. Also, the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((One who does not abandon evil talk and actions and ignorance then Allaah is not in need of him abandoning food and water (whilst fasting) )).Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 518/Fatwa No. 482), also (al-Fataawa lbni-‘Uthaymeen, Kitaab ad-Da’waah, Volume 1/Page 166-167)

21. Bad speech during the month of Ramadan

Question: Does impermissible (Haraam) speech during the day in Ramadan nullify the fast?

Response: If we read the saying of Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala), {O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become al-Muttaqoon (the pious)} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 183], we find the wisdom behind the obligation to fast is attaining fear of Allaah (Taqwah) and worshipping Allaah. Taqwah is to abandon all that is haraam and incorporating all that is commanded, avoiding all that is warned against. The Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa-sallaam) said: ((One who does not abandon evil talk and actions, then Allaah is not in need of him abandoning his food and drink (i.e. his fasting)). Based upon this, it is confirmation (for the one who is fasting) to abandon all that is haraam from speech and actions so as not to backbite, lie, slander or trade in haraam. So, keep away from haraam, and if a person were to do this throughout the entire month (of Ramadan), he would find himself upright for the rest of the year. Sadly, however, many people who fast do not differentiate between the time in which they fast and when they aren’t It has became a norm whereby they indulge in haraam speech, lying, cheating and so on. They don’t feel upon the peace and tranquility of the fast. These actions (of bad speech etc.) do not nullify the fast but do reduce the reward and, possibly, deflects the reward for the fast completely and Allaah’s Assistance is sought.Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Faatwa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 520/ Fatwa No. 485), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Volume 1/Page 501-502)

22. Sleeping throughout the day whilst fasting

Question: During Ramadan, if one was to take the pre-dawn meal (sahoor) and pray the Fajr prayer, then sleep until noon and prayed the Dhuhr prayer after which he would sleep until Asr, then pray the Asr prayer and, again, sleep until the time of breaking the fast (at Maghrib), would his fast be correct?

Response: If the situation is as mentioned, then his fast is correct. However, continuing in this fashion throughout the day (i.e. sleeping) is a waste and neglect on his part, especially since the month of Ramadan is a blessed month. It is befitting that the Muslim seek benefit from that which will aid him by reading the Qur.aan aplenty, working (for halaal earnings) and seeking knowledge. And with Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) is the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and his companions.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 522/Fatwa No.488), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No. 12901)

23. Swallowed water taking a bath, whilst fasting

Question: A man who was fasting took a bath and due to the strong pressure of the water, he ended up swallowing some water without intending to. Does he have to make this fast up?

Response: He does not have to make this fast up because he hadn’t intended that, so his ruling is that of one who is forced and one who has forgotten.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 537/Fatwa No. 511), also (Majmoo’ Fataawa ash-Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz, Volume 3/Page 252)

24. Tasting food whilst fasting

Question: Is it permissible for a cook to taste the food whilst fasting?

Response: There is no problem with tasting food out of necessity and this is done by placing it on the tip of the tongue to see how sweet or sour it is. However, nothing of it should be swallowed, rather, it should be spat out or taken out of the mouth and with that the fast is not nullified (according to the preferred opinion). And Allaah knows best. Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 543/Fatwa No.524) / (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 46)

Rulings pertaining to the intention for fasting

Section Three – Rulings pertaining to the intention for fasting

In this section read about:
1. Establishing the beginning and ending of Ramadan by sighting the moon
2. Making the intention to fast in Ramadan
3. The ruling regarding hesitancy towards whether to fast or not
4. Fasted without making the intention until later in the day
5. That which constitutes the intention to fast in Ramadan
6. The place of the intention is in the heart

1. Establishing the beginning and ending of Ramadan by sighting the moon

Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim to rely upon astronomical calculations in order to establish the beginning and ending of fasting or is it a must that the new moon is seen?

Response: The Islaamic Sharee’ah is a merciful legislation and is general. Its rulings are appropriate to all of man and jinn upon their differing status whether they be scholars or illiterate, city people or villagers and for this reason Allaah made it easy for them the way to establish the timings of different forms of worship. He made signs showing their beginning and end times all these people can participate in establishing that. He made, for example the disappearing of the sun a sign for the beginning time of the Maghrib prayer and for the ending time of the ‘Asr prayer. He made the setting of the red horizon a sign for the beginning time of the ‘Ishaa. prayer. He made the sighting of the new moon after it had been hidden at the end of the previous month a sign for the beginning of the new lunar month and for the end of the previous month and he did not burden us to establish the beginning of the lunar month by means that only a few people know, that being knowledge of the stars and the science of astronomy. In this manner did the text from the Book (the Qur.aan) and the Sunnah make the sighting of the new moon and it being spotted as a sign for the Muslims to begin fasting the month of Ramadan as was the sighting of the new moon of Shawwaal a sign to stop fasting. The situation is also the same when establishing the `Eed of sacrifice and the day of ‘Arafah. Allaah (‘azza wa jal) said: {So he who from amongst you should witness the month should fast it} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 185]. And Allaah (‘azza wa jal) said: {They ask you about the new moons, say these are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 189]. And the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((When you see it (the new moon) then (start to) fast and when you see it (again) break your fast (stop fasting). If your vision was impaired (due to clouds or mist) complete the period of thirty days)). So he (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) ordained that fasting start by affirming the sighting of the new moon of Ramadan and the end of the month of fasting be by affirmation of the new moon of Shawwaal. He (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) did not link any of that to astronomical calculations nor to the movement of stars. Based upon this, the people acted in the time of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and in the time of the righteous Khaleefahs, the four Imaams and the three generations that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) bore witness to, with virtue and goodness. So going back to the science of astronomy to affirm the lunar months in beginning and ending forms of worship without actual sighting is from the innovations that has no good in it and has no basis in the Sharee’ah. And the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is holding fast to that which the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and the righteous predecessors were upon by affirming the beginning and the end of the month of Ramadan, the `Eeds and the times of Hajj and their like with the sighting of the moon. And all good is in following the predecessors in religious matters and all evil is in the innovations that were introduced into the religion. May Allaah protect us and all the Muslims from all trials, open or hidden. Allaah is the one Who grants success. May the peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his companions.
The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Munay’. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 60-61/Fatwa No.27), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.386)

2. Making the intention to fast in Ramadan

Question: How does a person make the intention to fast in Ramadan? Is simply knowledge of the start of Ramadan sufficient to fast the rest of the days?

Response: The intention takes the form of a determination and a resolve to fast, and it is imperative to determine the intention to fast in Ramadan during the night and every night. And with Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) is the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and his companions.
The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 162/Fatwa No.94), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No. 11455)

3. The ruling regarding hesitancy towards whether to fast or not

Question: We heard the cannons tonight, (in Saudi Arabia, the cannons indicate the beginning and ending of Ramadan) more than once and we doubted whether or not it was `Eed or Ramadan so we waited until we heard something from the imaam before Fajr. But we didn’t hear anything. So what is the ruling regarding hesitancy towards whether to fast or not?

Response: It is obligatory upon a person to make verification and the basic rule (‘asl) is that things remain as they were. If there was something else it would have been openly clear so that the people would know and hence not make sahoor nor fast. In any case this day is considered as a day of Ramadan and if the ending of the month was established the matter would have been clear. So (based) upon this, it is obligatory upon the person to fast in such a situation without hesitancy. Because, the basic rule (‘asl) (in this case) is that Ramadan remains. If it became clear later on, that it was actually the day if `Eed he would break his fast.
Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 167/Fatwa No.101), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Volume 1/Page 476,477)

4. Fasted without making the intention until later in the day

Question: On the first night of Ramadan (preceding the first day of Ramadan), a person went to sleep before knowing that the next day will be the first day of fasting. So, when he woke up (and went) for the Fajr prayer he asked one of the worshippers, who happened to be the last one (left in the masjid) but he did not know. So this man continued as he was and did not eat (or drink) anything. When he reached work he found that the people were fasting and so, only then found out (for definite) about the fasting. So, based on this, he continued in this state and fasted until the evening. Was his fast correct on that day or does he have to make it up? We request you to give us a fatwa and may Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) grant you much good.

Response: One who does not know about the arrival of Ramadan except during the (first) day, then it is obligatory for him to refrain (from all that breaks the fast, from food and drink etc.) for the rest of the day, then make up that day because he did not make the intention to fast the previous night. And it is mentioned in many ahaadeeth that there is no fast for the one who did not make intention in the night for the obligatory fast. So, with this, some of the day passed whilst he had not made the intention to fast.
Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 168/Fatwa No.103) also, (al-Fataawa libni Fowzaan, Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1, pages 154-155)

5. That which constitutes the intention to fast in Ramadan

Question: Is it a must for one who is fasting, that when he makes the intention to fast in Ramadan that he specify that it is an obligatory fast?

Response: It is enough for him to make the intention that it is the fast of Ramadan and not say “I have made the intention that it is (an) obligatory (fast)”, since it is understood that the fast of Ramadan is obligatory.
Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 171/Fatwa No.108) also, (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 37)

6. The place of the intention is in the heart

Question: What is the ruling regarding making the intention vocally, such as when some people make the intention to fast (by saying); “O Allaah, I have made the intention to fast”?

Response: The place of the intention is in the heart and it is not permissible to vocally make the intention either for the prayer, or the fast, or the purification or other than these.
Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 173/Fatwa No.111), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 39)

The rulings pertaining to eid al-fitr

Section Twelve – The rulings pertaining to ‘eid al-fitr

In this section read about:
1. That which is recommended for the day of `Eid al-Fitr
2. What a Muslim says once the moon of Shawwaal has been sighted
3. Women leaving for the `Eid al-Fitr prayer
4. What to do when `Eid coincides with Friday

1. That which is recommended for the day of `Eid al-Fitr

Question: What is recommended for us to do on the day of `Eid al-Fitr?

Response: On the day of `Eid al-Fitr the Muslims display their joy at completing the fasting and the standing (the night prayer) and all other forms of worship. For certainly that is amongst the greatest blessings which Allaah has granted his servants. So they begin firstly by reciting the takbeer (the saying of: Allaahu Akbar (Allaah is the Greatest)) on the night before the `Eid (continuing) until the following day before the (`Eid) prayer. Then they leave first thing in the morning to perform this worship which is the `Eid prayer in a specific manner. And this takes place outside the town (in an open officially designated area) with both men and women in attendance. Then they return (full of) joy and happiness at this blessing and begin exchanging greetings and well-wishing (each other) and they visit each other eating (throughout) the day as a sign of the end of this act of worship (fasting).Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 947/Fatwa No.934), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 181)

2. What a Muslim says once the moon of Shawwaal has been sighted

Question: We would like to know what a Muslim says once the moon of Shawwaal has been sighted (up until) before the `Eid prayer?

Response: That which is befitting is to increase in (reciting) the takbeer (the saying of: Allaahu Akbar (Allaah is the Greatest)), and the tahleel (the saying of: laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (there is none truly worthy of worship except Allaah)), and the tahmEid (the saying of al-hamdu-lillaah (all Praise is for Allaah)), for that which Allaah (tabaarak wa ta’aala) (mentions): {and that you must magnify Allaah for having guided you so that you may be grateful} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 185]. Shaykh Ibn al-Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 947/Fatwa No.935), also (Fiqh al-Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 215)

3. Women leaving for the `Eid al-Fitr prayer

Question: Is it permissible for the woman to leave (the home) for the `Eid al-Fitr prayer?

Response: Yes! It has been legislated to leave (the home) for the `Eid prayer and it has (also) been confirmed (likewise) for the women. And it is (mentioned) in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim on the authority of Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhi-yallaahu `anhaa) who said: ((We were commanded to leave (our homes) on the day of `Eid, even the virgin from behind her veil/screen, even the the menstruating (woman), so they would recite the takbeer and supplicate seeking the blessing of that day and it’s purification)). Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 948/Fatwa No.937), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 181) Women leaving for the `Eid al-Fitr prayer Question: Is it permissible for the woman to leave (the home) for the `Eid al-Fitr prayer? Response: Yes! It has been legislated to leave (the home) for the `Eid prayer and it has (also) been confirmed (likewise) for the women. And it is (mentioned) in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim on the authority of Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhi-yallaahu `anhaa) who said: ((We were commanded to leave (our homes) on the day of `Eid, even the virgin from behind her veil/screen, even the the menstruating (woman), so they would recite the takbeer and supplicate seeking the blessing of that day and it’s purification)).Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 948/Fatwa No.937), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 181)

4. What to do when `Eid coincides with Friday

Question: If any of the two `Eids fall on a Friday (Jumu’ah), do you pray the Jumu’ah (prayer) with its khutbah on that day or not?

Response: That which is legislated for the Muslims if the `Eid coincides with Friday is to pray the `Eid prayer and the Jumu’ah prayer in the masaajid (plural of masjid) where the Jumu’ah prayer is (normally) held. And it is permissible for one who attended the `Eid prayer to leave off the Jumu’ah and instead perform the Zuhr prayer.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / Majmoo’ Fataawa Samaahatu ash-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, Volume 4/Page 504/Fatwa No. 556

The rulings pertaining to zakaah al-fitr

Section Eleven – The rulings pertaining to zakaah al-fitr

In this section read about:
1. The ruling of Zakaatul-Fitr
2.The ruling regarding forgetting to discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr
3. Failing to discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr before the `Eed prayer
4. Dispatched Zakaatul-Fitr to my country
5. The payment of Zakaatul-Fitr in money

1. The ruling of Zakaatul-Fitr

Question: Is Zakaatul-Fitr obligatory or (just) recommended? And upon whom is it obligatory?

Response: Zakaatul-Fitr is obligatory upon the Muslims because the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) legislated it upon the male and the female and the young and the old. And he specified it to be one saa’ of food or dates or barley or raisins or cheese (one saa’ is equal to four mudd, and one mudd is equal to the amount held by cupping the two hands together. It is a measure by volume and not by weight). And he commanded that it be discharged before the people leave to perform the `Eed prayer. So it is a Prophetic obligation which has been legislated for the last part of Ramadan as a purification for the fasting one from any mistake or sexual intercourse (which may have come to pass). And it is food for the needy such that they do not have to wander around asking (begging). And with Allaah is the success.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 902/Fatwa No.885), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 188)

2. The ruling regarding forgetting to discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr

Question: What is the ruling regarding the one who had not discharged the Zakaatul-Fitr until during the (`Eed) khutbah (sermon) after the `Eed prayer, and that is because he had forgotten?

Response: Discharging the Zakaatul-Fitr before the (`Eed) prayer is obligatory, and whoever forgets then there is nothing upon him except to discharge it after that. This is because it is an obligation so it is upon him to discharge it when he remembers, and it is not permissible for anyone to intentionally delay it until after the `Eed prayer according to the most correct of the two opinions. This is because the Messenger (saw) commanded the Muslims to discharge it before the `Eed prayer.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 931-932/ Fatwa No. 914), also (Majmoo’ Fataawa Samaahatu ash-Shaykh ‘Abdul Azeez Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Baaz, Volume 3/ Page 101)

3. Failing to discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr before the `Eed prayer

Question: If one does discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr before the `Eed prayer, is he relieved (of this obligation)?

Response: One who does discharge the Zakaatul-Fitr before the `Eed prayer then he is a sinner and he is not relieved (of this obligation), rather he must discharge it afterwards.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 932/Fatwa No.915), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 187)

4. Dispatched Zakaatul-Fitr to my country

Question: I dispatched the Zakaatul-Fitr, specifically pertaining to myself, to my family so that they can discharge it in my country. Is this action correct?

Response: (This is) not a problem, (and) you shall be rewarded inshaa.-Allaah. Discharging it in your area is better, so that you discharge it to the needy in the area in whch you reside, and this is better. However, if you dispatched it to your family to discharge it to the needy in your country then that is not a problem.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/ Page 941/ Fatwa No. 929), also (Majmoo’ Fataawa Samaahatu ash-Shaykh ‘Abdul Azeez Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Baaz, Volume 3/ Page 97)

5. The payment of Zakaatul-Fitr in money

Question: Is it permissible to discharge the obligation of Zakaatul-Fitr on the first day of Ramadan? And is it permissible to distribute it in money?

Response: As for the discharging of it on the first day of Ramadan – there is Ikhtilaaf (difference of opinion among the scholars) about it. The most correct opinion is that it’s not permissible, because it is called Zakaatul-Fitr, and al-Fitr (ending of the fast) does not occur except at the end of the month. Also, the Messenger of Allaah [sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam] ordered that it be discharged before the people go out to the Prayer (Salaatul-`Eed). Along with that, the companions (Sahaabah) used to give out the Zakaatul-Fitr one or two days before the `Eed. As for discharging the Zakaatul-Fitr in MONEY, this is a point of Ikhtilaf (difference among the scholars). And the correct opinion – as I see it – is that it is not discharged except by (distribution of) FOOD. This is because Ibn ‘Umar [radhi-yallaahu ‘anhumaa] said: “The Messenger of Allaah [sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam] made obligatory (the payment of) Zakaatul-Fitr from a Saa’ of dates or a Saa’ of barley…” (Bukhaaree 2:579), (One Saa’ is equal to four (4) Mudd, and one (1) Mudd is equal to the amount held by cupping the two hands together. It is a measure by volume not by weight). Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree [radhi-yallaahu ‘anhu] said: “We used to distribute it (Zakaatul-Fitr) in the time of the Messenger of Allaah [sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam] as one saa’ of food, and our food was dates and barley and raisins and cottage cheese…”( Bukhaaree 2:582). So, it becomes clear from these two hadeeth that it (Zakaatul-Fitr) is not discharged except from FOOD. And the distribution of it in food displays it openly and shows it, and all of the members of the family know about it. In this way, there is an exhibition or manifestation of this aspect of the religion. As for discharging it in money, this causes it to be concealed (unseen), and perhaps the person may favor himself, by discharging it in money, and thus reduce its amount. (As the amount would differ if we compare the value of one saa’ of dates to one saa’ of barley for example. Since a saa’ of barley is about 7 riyals ($2.00), while a saa’ of dates ranges -according to quality – from 25 riyals ($7.00) for a lesser quality to 42 riyals ($12.00) for a medium quality, to 175 riyals ($49.00) for the best quality per saa’.)Therefore, strictly following the Law (al-Qur’aan and Sunnah) is best and it is blessed. Someone might argue that the distribution of food doesn’t benefit the poor. (But, we say) the poor person – if truly poor – must definitely benefit from the food.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 935/Fatwa No.921), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Volume 1/ Page 463)

The rulings pertaining to i’tikaaf

Section Ten – The rulings pertaining to i’tikaaf

In this section read about:
1. The conditions of i’tikaaf
2. Ruling of i’tikaaf
3. When a person in i’tikaaf leaves his i’tikaaf

1. The conditions of i’tikaaf

Question: What are the conditions of i’tikaaf, and is fasting one of them? Is it permissible for the person in i’tikaaf to visit a sick person, answer an invitation, fulfil some of his family’s needs, or go to work?

Response: I’tikaaf is prescribed in a masjid in which the congregational prayer is established. If the person in i’tikaaf is from those upon whom Friday prayers are obligatory and the length of his i’tikaaf includes a Friday, then it is better to be in a masjid in which Friday prayers are established. Fasting is not (a) necessary (part of it). The sunnah is that he does not visit the sick during his i’tikaaf and that he does not answer the invitation, nor fulfil the needs of his family. He should not witness the funeral (by following it) and he should not go to work outside the masjid. This is due to what has been authenticated on the authority of ‘Aa.ishah (radhi-yallaahu `anhaa) that she said: ((the sunnah for he who is in i’tikaaf is that he does not visit the sick nor witness a funeral, nor touch a woman (his wife), nor have intercourse with her nor leave to fulfil a need except that which is necessary)). And with Allaah lies success. May the peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad his family and companions.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Qu’ood. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 862/Fatwa No.848), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.6718)

2. Ruling of i’tikaaf

Question: What is the ruling of i’tikaaf, and is it permissible to do it in other than the masaajid (plural of masjid)?

Response: I’tikaaf is sunnah (recommended but not obligatory), and is not correct except in the masaajid. Firstly: Because Allaah the Majestic the High said: {…while you are in i’tikaaf in the masaajid} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 187]. He also said {…that they should purify My House for those who circumambulate it and make i’tikaaf in it} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 125]. The “House” is the Masjid al-Haraam (in Makkah). Secondly: If he were to make i’tikaaf in other than the masaajid, it would lead him to missing prayers with the congregation of Muslims in the masaajid and leaving it is a great sin. Or it would lead him to frequently go to the prayer, and his frequent leaving, going and coming contradicts the i’tikaaf, because the i’tikaaf is that the one doing it attaches himself (to the place of his i’tikaaf).

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 869/Fatwa No.855), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 111)

3. When a person in i’tikaaf leaves his i’tikaaf

Question: When does a person leave i’tikaaf, is it after sunset on the night prior to `Eed or after Fajr on the day of `Eed?

Response: The person in i’tikaaf leaves i’tikaaf once Ramadan finishes and it finishes as the sun sets the night prior to `Eed. He enters i’tikaaf at sunset (prior) to the 20th day of Ramadan. This is so as the last ten (nights) of Ramadan start from sunset of the night (prior) to the 20th day of Ramadan and ends at sunset of the night (prior) to `Eed.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 872/Fatwa No.859), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen Volume1/Page 551)

The excellence of the last ten nights of Ramadan and laylatul-qadr

Section Nine – The excellence of the last ten nights of Ramadan and laylatul-qadr

In this section read about:
1. The signs of Laylatul-Qadr
2. Distinguishing a particular night with worship

1. The signs of Laylatul-Qadr

Question: What are the signs of Laylatul-Qadr (the night of power)?

Response: From amongst the signs of laylatul-qadr is that it is a calm night and the believer’s heart is delighted and at peace with it, and he becomes active in doing good actions, and the sun on the following morning rises clearly without any rays.Shakyh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 852/ Fatwa No. 841), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-Uthaymeen, Volume 1/Page 563)

2. Distinguishing a particular night with worship

Question: Some people seek laylatul-qadr so they active by offering their prayers and other forms of worship whilst they do not do likewise on other nights in Ramadan, so is this in accordance with that which is correct?

Response: No! It is not in accordance with that which is correct, for certainly laylatul-qadr changes. So it could be on the night of the twenty seventh, and it could be on any other night as has been indicated in many ahaadeeth. It has been confirmed that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((In that particular year laylatul-qadr was revealed on the night of the twenty first)). Therefore it is not befitting for a person to specify his stand (in prayer) on a particular night or distinguish a night which he yearns to be laylatul-qadr (likewise). (Rather) striving in all of the last ten nights is from the guidance of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam), since when the last ten nights arrived he would tighten his waist belt and awaken his family and used to spend them all awake (in worship). So that which is befitting for the prudent believer is to strive in all of the last ten nights such that the reward does not pass him by.Shaykh Ibn al-Uthaymeen, (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 855/Fatwa No.844), also (Fiqh al-Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 207)

The rulings pertaining to the night prayer and taraaweeh

Section Eight – The rulings pertaining to the night prayer and taraaweeh

In this section read about:
1. Continuing to pray the taraaweeh (prayers
2. The imaams elongating their supplication)

1. Continuing to pray the taraaweeh (prayers)
Question: Whoever prays the taraaweeh (prayers) must he then continue to pray them throughout Ramadan?

Response: No! He does not have to continue (to pray them) because it is a recommended (sunnah) prayer in that if he prays them then he is rewarded and if he leaves them then he is not a sinner, however (in leaving them) he misses out on a lot of good as we have said (before).Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 837/Fatwa No.831), also (Fiqh al-Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 205-206)

2. The imaams elongating their supplication
Question: Some imaams in the masaajid, in Ramadan, elongate their supplication, and some of them shorten them, so what is correct?

Response: That which is correct is for it not to be excessive and nor to be short. So elongation which is difficult upon the people is forbidden. When news reached the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) that Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal (radhi-yallaahu ‘anhu) elongated his prayer when he was with his people, the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) became so angry that he had not been angry in an exhortation similar to it before. And he said to Mu’aadh (radhi-yallaahu ‘anhu): ((Are you a charmer O Mu’aadh?)). So that which is befitting is to shorten (the supplication) to that which has been reported (from the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam)), or increase for there is no doubt that elongating is difficult fo rthe people as it exhausts them especially the weak amingst them. Amongst the people there are those who are around him who do not wish to leave until before the imaam, so it becomes difficult for them to remain behind with the imaam. So my advice to my brothers the imaams is (to strike an even balance and) be between that which is long and that which is short. Just as it is befitting to leave them supplication sometimes such that the general (Muslims) to dont think the supplication is obligatory.Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2 / Page 832 / Fatwa No. 829), also (al-Fataawa libni ‘Uthaymeen – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1 / Pages 198-199)

The rulings pertaining to making up the missed days, expiation and feeding the needy

Section Seven – The rulings pertaining to making up the missed days, expiation and feeding the needy

In this section read about:
1. Did not make up the days from previous Ramadan
2. Delaying making up the fasts until arrival of following Ramadan
3. Ruling regarding one who had not fasted for many years
4. Ignorant about obligation of fasting
5. Did not make up days missed in Ramadan throughout her menstrual years
6. Pregnant wife unable to make up days remaining from Ramadan
7. Unable to fast for four years due to illness
8. Had sexual intercourse with my wife not knowing it was first day of Ramadan
9. Died whilst still having days to make up from Ramadan

1. Did not make up the days from previous Ramadan

Question: Concerning the one who had days to make up from the previous Ramadan and had not done so when the following Ramadan arrived, is he a sinner and does he have to make an expiation or not?

Response: Anyone who has days to make up from the (previous) Ramadan then he has to make them up before (the arrival of) the next Ramadan. It is permissible for him to delay his fast until Sha’baan (the 8th month, just before Ramadan). However, if the following Ramadan arrives and he still has not made up the (missed) days without (a valid) reason, then he has committed a sin. So now he has to make up those days along with feeding a poor person for every day (he has to make up) as this is what the group of companions of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) had ruled with. The amount of food required would be half a saa’a for every day from that which is the norm in the country and is to be given to a number of people or, even, just one person. As for he who had a valid excuse for delaying in making up the fasts, because of illness or travel then he has to make up the days missed only and he does not have to feed any poor people, for the general statement of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala): {and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not fast must be made up) from other days} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 185]. And Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) is the Provider of Success.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 555/ Fatwa No. 537), also (al-Fataawa libni-Baaz, Kitaab ad-Da’waah, Volume 2/Page 158-159)

2. Delaying making up the fasts until arrival of following Ramadan

Question: What is required from the one who delays making up the fasts of one Ramadan until the arrival of the following Ramadan?

Response: If this was done for a valid reason, for example, he was ill in bed for eleven months and was unable to fast that which was required of him, then all he has to do is (once again) make up the days missed. However, if he was negligent and was able to fast (but didn’t) then he has to feed a number of poor people for every day that he didn’t make up as expiation for his negligence.Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 555/Fatwa No.538), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 60)

3. Ruling regarding one who had not fasted for many years

Question: What is the ruling regarding a Muslim who had not fasted (during the month of Ramadan) for many years, despite carrying out the other obligatory acts of worship upon him? Knowing he had nothing hindering him from fasting, does he have to make up that which he has missed if he makes repentance?

Response: That which is correct is that he doesn’t have to make up that which he has missed if he makes repentance. This is because all acts of worship are enjoined upon the believers at stated times. So, if someone intentionally delays any of them, such that the time passes without a (valid) reason, Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) will not accept this act from him. So based upon this, there is no point in making up that which he missed. However, he should make repentance to Allaah (‘azza wa-jall) and increase in doing good actions and one who seeks forgiveness, Allaah forgives him (inshaa’Allaah).Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 556/Fatwa No. 539), also (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Volume 1/Page 536)

4. Ignorant about obligation of fasting

Question: Ten years ago, I reached adolescence as a result of the passing of it’s known signs. So in my first year of puberty I let Ramadan pass without fasting and this was without a valid, Islaamic reason but, rather, out of ignorance about it’s obligation at that time. Do I have to make up those days I missed and do I have to do anything other than make up those days such as expiation?

Response: You have to make up the days you missed for that particular month which you did not fast, in addition to making repentance and seeking forgiveness. Also, you have to feed a poor person for every day missed and it’s amount is half a saa’a of the food of the land such as dates, rice or other than these, if you are able to do that. If you are poor and unable to do so, then nothing is required of you except (fasting) the days you missed.Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 559/Fatwa No. 542), also (al-Fataawa libni Baaz – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 2/Page 158)

5. Did not make up days missed in Ramadan throughout her menstrual years

Question: An old lady of sixty years of age was ignorant concerning the rulings of menstruation for many years. Throughout her menstrual years, she did not make up the days missed in Ramadan thinking they did not have to be made up. This was according to what she had heard from the sayings of the people in general.

Response: She has to seek repentance from Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) for that (which has passed) because she had not asked the people of knowledge. Also, she has to make up all the missed days and make expiation for each day missed by feeding a poor person half a measure of barley, dates, rice or that which is similar to this from the food of people. This is if she is able to do so. If she is unable to feed the poor, then this is (no longer) required and it will suffice that she make up the days missed only. And with Allaah is the success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Qu’ood. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 583/Fatwa No.567), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.1790)

6. Pregnant wife unable to make up days remaining from Ramadan

Question: In the year 1409h (1988), my wife did not fast for fourteen days due to her menses. Afterwards, she was able to fast for seven days and she had seven days left (to make up). Now, she is six months pregnant. I seek your assistance, is it enough to make an expiation for the remaining days (she needs to make up)? What should I do? May Allaah reward you.

Response: It is obligatory that your wife make up the days left from the Ramadan in which she did not fast due to her menses. If she delayed making these days up until the arrival of the next Ramadan without a valid, Islaamic reason, then she has to make those days up together with making expiation for each of the days left. The expiation will take the form of feeding a poor person for each day (left to make up), half a measure of dates or barley or that which is similar to this from the food of the people or else, a number of poor people according to the days left to make up. However, if the delay was due to pregnancy or an illness, then there is nothing more required of her except making up the days (missed or left). And with Allaah is the success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 583/Fatwa No.568), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.13545)

7. Unable to fast for four years due to illness

Question: A man was struck by a chronic illness, so the doctors advised him not to fast. He was cured of this illness after a period of four years. What should he do now that Allaah has cured him? Should he make up that which has passed?

Response: Anyone who does not fast because of an illness then, after the illness has passed and he is able, it is obligatory for him to make those days up which he was unable to fast. This was mentioned by Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala): {(Fasting) for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days}, [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 184]. For he who had not fasted for four consecutive Ramadans and has now been cured, then it is obligatory upon him to make up the days missed (in order). However, he should distance the days from each other according to his ability to (make up the) fast, until he makes up all that he needs to so that he relieves himself of the responsibility. It is not obligatory for him to make up the days all at once, as that which is mentioned by Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala): {So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can; listen and obey; and spend in charity, that is better for yourselves. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, then they are the successful ones} [Soorah at-Taghaabun, Aayah 16]. This is the case since the time for making up the fasts is plenty. Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 592/Fatwa No. 577), also (al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa ash-Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan, Volume 3/Page 139)

8. Had sexual intercourse with my wife not knowing it was first day of Ramadan

Question: I had sexual intercourse with my wife during the day in Ramadan. I was not aware that it was the first day of Ramadan and nor did many other people until after the ‘Asr prayer so do I (now) have to make an expiation?

Response: There is nothing required of you except to make up the fast that you missed and there is no expiation to make. This is because you did not know that it was the first day of Ramadan so you did not violate the sanctity of the day of Ramadan intentionally.
Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 612/Fatwa No.608), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 69)

9. Died whilst still having days to make up from Ramadan

Question: What is the ruling of one who has died whilst still having had days to make up from Ramadan?

Response: If he has died whilst still having days to make up from Ramadan, then the one who is in charge of his affairs from amongst his close relatives or inheritors should fast on his behalf. That which is mentioned in the hadeeth by ‘Aa.ishah is that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((One who has died whilst having days to make up from Ramadan, then the one who is in charge of his affairs must fast on his behalf)). If the one who is in charge of his affairs does not fast on his behalf then he must feed a poor person for every day (to be made up). Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 2/Page 626/Fatwa No. 626), also (Fiqh al-‘Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 202-203)

The categories of people (according to their defective circumstances) in fasting

Section Five – The categories of people (according to their defective circumstances) in fasting

In this section read about:
1. The fast of a young child who has not yet attained puberty
2. Not having to fast whilst travelling

1. The fast of a young child who has not yet attained puberty

Question: What is the ruling of the fast of a young (child) who has not yet attained puberty?

Response: The fasting of a young (child), as has preceded us, is not obligatory upon him. However, it is upon one who is in charge of his affairs to command him to (fast) and thereby prepare him (for it). And the fast of such a young (child) is (regarded) as a sunnah, in that there is a reward for him fasting, however, there is no sin upon him should he stop.Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 237/Fatwa No.182) also, (Fataawa ash-Shaykh Muhammad as-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, Volume 1/Pages 493)

2. Not having to fast whilst travelling

Question: For which type of journey is not having to fast permissible?

Response: The journey for which it is permissible to shorten the prayer and not fast is approximately 83 kilometres. There are some amongst the scholars who do not specify a distance for the journey, rather, all that is commonly understood as a journey amongst the people constitutes a journey. The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa-sallaam) used to shorten the prayer if he travelled 3 faraasikh (plural of farsakh, i.e. 3 miles – which is equal to 9 miles). And for the impermissible journey, it is not acceptable to shorten the prayer or not to fast because a journey (undertaken) for (any) evil acts is not appropriate for (such a) permissibility. However, some of the people of knowledge do not differentiate between a journey (undertaken) for (any) evil acts or a journey in obedience (to Allaah) for the generality of the evidence (available). And (ultimately) the (complete) knowledge is with Allaah.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 306/Fatwa no.249), also (al-Fataawa libni ‘Uthaymeen, Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1/Pages 179-180)

The suhoor (pre-dawn meal), the abstaining (imsaak) and breaking the fast (iftaar)

Section Four – The sahoor (pre-dawn meal), the abstaining (imsaak) and breaking the fast (iftaar)

In this section read about:
1. Fasted without taking the sahoor (pre-dawn meal)
2. Preferred food items to break the fast with
3. The reward for breaking the fast wth dates
4. Nothing but water to break the fast
5. Is it permissible to eat after the Adhhaan for a supererogatory fast?
6. Fajr is approaching and I need to make ghusl, and haven’t had sahoor
7. Sun does not set until late, so when should we break our fast?
8. I had forgetfully eaten whilst fasting
9. Giving food and drink to the Fasting person

1. Fasted without taking the sahoor (pre-dawn meal)

Question: A person went to sleep before the sahoor in Ramadan whilst having the intention to take the sahoor. But, he slept through ’til the morning. Is his fast correct or not?

Response: His fast is correct because the sahoor is not a condition for the correctness of the fast. Rather it is preferable, for that which the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said ((Take the sahoor for certainly in it is blessing)). (This hadeeth has been) agreed upon by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 185/Fatwa No.124) also, (al-Fataawa libni Baaz, Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 2/Page 161)

2. Preferred food items to break the fast with

Question: Which food items are preferred for the fasting person to break his fast with?

Response: The most preferred to break the fast with are fresh dates and if they are unavailable, then dry dates and if they are (also) unavailable, then with water. And the evidence for this is the Hadeeth of ‘Aa.ishah who said: ((The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) used to break his fast with fresh dates and if they were unavailable, then with dry dates. If they were unavailable then he used to take water)). However, if none of these are available to him, then it is permissible for him (to break his fast) with any permissible food items. And (still) if nothing is available to him then he should simply make the intention to break the fast.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 187/Fatwa No.126), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 15)

3. The reward for breaking the fast wth dates

Question: Is there any reward for (breaking the fast with) these preferable (food items)?

Response: One who does so in following the Prophet’s (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) example, then for him is the reward of following him. Even if it is in the (simply mundane) acceptable (mubaah) matters (i.e. where there is no reward nor any sin attached to the action), if he were to follow (him) in these, then he would be rewarded for that action. Because of this, the scholars say: ‘Certainly with good intention, good habits become acts of worship’.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 187/Fatwa No.127), also (Fataawa as-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 15)

4. Nothing but water to break the fast

Question: If a person is fasting during Ramadan and is travelling to another country and he does not have anything except water, what does he do?

Response: If a person is fasting and the sun sets and he does not find anything to break his fast with except water, then he should break his fast with the water because breaking the fast with fresh or dried dates is preferable but not obligatory. And with Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) is the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and his companions. The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head:

Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 188/Fatwa No.128), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No. 11803)

5. Is it permissible to eat after the Adhhaan for a supererogatory fast?

Question: If I wanted to fast but was unable to wake up before the Adhhaan of the second Fajr, is it permissible for me to eat after the Adhhaan knowing that this is a supererogatory fast?

Response: If the situation is as you have stated, then do not eat or drink after the Adhhaan (of the second Fajr) so long as you wish to fast, even if your fast is a supererogatory one. If you were to eat after this Adhhaan, your fast would become nullified.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising- Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Qu’ood. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 198/Fatwa No.139), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.4310)

6. Fajr is approaching and I need to make ghusl, and haven’t had sahoor

Question: If the time for Fajr is approaching in Ramadan and I need to make ghusl but there is not enough time to perform it nor eat the sahoor, should I perform the ghusl and miss the sahoor or should I eat the sahoor and delay the ghusl until after Fajr?

Response: It is better to eat the sahoor because the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((Eat the pre-dawn meal (sahoor) for in it is blessing)), and delay the ghusl because it’s time is plenty. So, if Fajr has arrived and you have not made ghusl, then make it and pray and your fast will not be affected. It has been confirmed on the authority of ‘Aa.ishah and Umm Salamah (radhi-yallaahu ‘anhumaa) that: “if the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) entered the time of Fajr whilst in a state of impurity (Junub) from having had relations with his wife, then he used to make ghusl and fast”. (The authenticity of this narration is) Agreed upon.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 200/Fatwa No.141)

7. Sun does not set until late, so when should we break our fast?

Question: We live in a land in which the sun does not set until 21:30 (09:30pm) or 22:00 (10:00pm), so when should we break our fast?

Response: Break your fast when the sun has set. So long as you have a night and day in 24 hours, it is obligatory that you fast even if the day is long.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 212/Fatwa No.155)

8. I had forgetfully eaten whilst fasting

Question: I fasted a day but I had forgotten during the morning and had eaten. Then, I continued with my fast. Is there any sin upon me?

Response: One who forgetfully eats or drinks whilst fasting should complete his fast for, certainly, it was Allaah who provided this food and drink for him as has been mentioned in the Hadeeth. Allaah has forgiven the mistake and forgetfulness and does not take anyone to account until they have done an act intentionally.

Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 224/Fatwa No.169)

9. Giving food and drink to the Fasting person

Question: In Ramadan last year (1409H/1988), my husband returned home from work and when he entered the house he asked me to bring him a glass of water to drink so I didn’t remind him that he was fasting. I looked at him to confirm if he was fasting or not and it became clear that he had forgotten that he was (fasting). So, I proceeded to bring him the glass of water to drink. When he had drunk the water he remembered that he was fasting and admonished me for not reminding him of it. Then, I felt a fear of Allaah about this action of mine. Please inform me, and may Allaah reward you.

Response: You have committed a sin in bringing your husband, who was fasting, a glass of water to drink. It was befitting for you to remind him about the fast when he asked you for water. As for your husband’s fast that day, then it remains valid providing he drunk the water out of forgetfulness.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising – Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullaah ibn Baaz; Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee; Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah ibn Ghudayyaan. (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 225/Fatwa No.171), also (Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa., Fatwa No.13561)

Rulings pertaining to the arrival of Ramadan and sighting the moon

Section Two – Rulings pertaining to the arrival of Ramadan and sighting the moon

Does sighting the new moon in one country necessitate fasting for those in other countries as well?

Question: If the Muslims saw the new moon of Ramadan in one country, would it be upon the Muslims in other countries to fast (aswell)?

Response: We do not doubt the different settings (of the moon) and the difference between two countries in sighting the moon. For this reason many scholars held that every country should have their own sighting if there was (between them) an actual difference (of settings). Their proof: the story of Kurayb the servant of Ibn ‘Abbaas when Ramadan started while he was in Shaam (the area today known as Syria, Jordan and Palestine). The people of Shaam started fasting on Friday. The new moon however was not seen in Madeenah until Friday night. Kurayb told Ibn ‘Abbaas that Mu’aawiyah and the people of Shaam fasted on Friday. Ibn ‘Abbaas said:”But we shall continue fasting until we see the moon (showing the end of the month) or until we complete thirty days. That is what the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) ordered us to do.” Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah strengthened the position that it was obligatory upon the people in the country that saw the moon to fast as well as those countries in front of them. He established that whenever the moon was seen in a country it was for sure to be seen in the countries that came after that country (on the map). Because its setting is delayed to after that of the sun and whenever it is delayed it increases in distance away from the sun and in clarity and manifestation. So if it was seen in Bahrain, for example, it would obligate fasting upon those countries which come after it like Najd, the Hijaaz (Makkah, Madeenah, Jeddah), Egypt and Morocco. It would not obligate fasting for those countries before it like Sind and India and those (further) beyond (the sea).
Shaykh Ibn Jibreen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 108/Fatwa No.54), also (Fataawa al-Siyaam libni Jibreen, Page 21)

The excellence of the fast of Ramadan, it’s rulings and upon whom it is obligatory

Section One – The excellence of the fast of Ramadan, it’s rulings and upon whom it is obligatory

In this section read about:
1. The ruling and wisdom behind fasting
2. The social benefits of fasting
3. The virtues of feeding the fasting person
4. The ruling concerning neglecting to fast
5. The ruling concerning leaving off fasting due to laziness

1. The ruling and wisdom behind fasting

Question: What is the ruling of and the wisdom behind fasting?
Response: With Allaah lies all success. As for its wisdom, Allaah(subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) mentioned a very incorporating meaning in that regard: {O you who believe fasting has been prescribed for upon you as it was prescribed upon those that came before you that you may attain taqwaa (piety)} [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 183]. It incorporates everything the people have mentioned with regard to its wisdom.
Taqwaa is a comprehensive word for everything that Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) loves and is pleased with from actions which are desirable and from abandoning prohibitions. So fasting is the greatest way to reach this goal which is the goal of the pleasure of the servant in his worldly life and his Hereafter;
The fasting person seeks closeness to Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) by avoiding all desires, giving love of Allaah precedence over the love of his self. For this reason, Allaah specified it out of the other actions by attributing it to Himself, as in the authentic hadeeth;
It is from the principles of taqwaa, as Islaam is not complete without it; o It causes an increase in faith, and attainment of patience and in it is training one’s self upon hardships that bring one close to the Lord of the Heavens;
It is a cause of increase of one’s good deeds, prayer, reciting (the Qur.aan), remembrance (dhikr) and charity that actualizes at-taqwaa;
In it is prevention of the self from Haraam (prohibited) things, of prohibited action and speech which is the pillar of Taqwaa. In the authentic hadeeth: ((Whoever does not abandon false speech and acting upon that, Allaah is in no need of his abandoning his food and drink)). So the servant seeks closeness to Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) through avoiding prohibitions altogether, and they are:
“False speech” – and that is every haraam (prohibited) speech;
“Acting upon that” – and that is every haraam (prohibited) action;
Leaving every haraam thing that obstructs the fast and that is those thing things which break the fast.
So, since in fasting there are advantages, benefits and attainment of all good and reward, that which necessitates its prescription at all times, Allaah (subhaanahu wa-ta’aala) told that it was prescribed upon us as it was prescribed upon those before us. This is His affair with all His Laws that have universal advantages.
As for its rulings: all the “al ahkaam at takleefiyyah” Islaamic rulings could apply to it in accordance with the differing reasons behind it:
As for the obligatory (waajib & fardh): 1) It includes fasting Ramadan upon every Muslim that is Islamically bound by the `Eed and is able; 2) It also includes the fast that a person vows to do; 3) It includes the fasts of expiation (after having done an act obligating that.)
As for the prohibited fast, it is: 1) Fasting the days of Sharee’ah; 2) Fasting the 11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah, except for the person who is doing Hajj at-Tamattu’ or Qiraan but does not have a sacrifice and did not fast before the Day of Sacrifice; 3) Also included in the haraam fast is the fast of menstruating woman and the woman in post-natal bleeding; 4) Also, the ill person that fears death (as a result of fasting); 5) Also, it is obligatory to break the fast upon the one that needs to in order to save a sinless soul from jeopardy – (meaning the baby in the mother’s womb.
The fast which is recommended (sunnah) is the supererogatory fast, the restricted and the unrestricted;
As for the fast that is disliked (makrooh), it is the fast of the ill person who feels hardship in doing that;
The permissible fast (jaa.iz): the fasting of a traveler. It is permissible for him to fast or not particularly if he traveled in a day in which he began fasting before traveling.
Shaykh as-Sa’dee / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Pages 34-36/Fatwa No.8), also (al-Irshaad ilaa Ma’rifatil Ahkaam, Pages 82-84)

2. The social benefits of fasting

Question: Does fasting have any social benefits?
Response: Yes, it has social benefits. From them is the feeling people have that they are one nation eating at one time and fasting at one time. The wealthy one is cognizant of Allaah’s blessings and is sympathetic to the poor. Fasting lessens shaytaan’s treachery to the son of Aadam. In fasting there is piety of Allaah, and piety of Allaah strengthens the bonds between the individuals of the community.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 37/Fatwa No.10), also (Fiqh al-‘Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen, Page 170)

3. The virtues of feeding the fasting person

Question: Some people hold banquets and give invitations in Ramadan making it a month of occasions. Others slaughter, and distribute the meat, in charity and make other types of effort with food. What is the ruling regarding this?
Response: Yes, offering food in Ramadan has extra virtue due to the nobility of the time and the need that the fasting people have for food. The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said: ((Whoever feeds a fasting person will have a reward like that of his reward (i.e. the one fasting))), so preparing food in this month for the needy is from the best of actions because (the reward for giving) charity in the month of Ramadan is multiplied more than in the other months.

Shaykh Ibn Fowzaan / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 38/Fatwa No.11), also (al- Fataawa libni Fowzaan – Kitaab ad-Da’wah, Volume 1/ Page 153-154)

4. The ruling concerning neglecting to fast

Question: What is the ruling regarding a Muslim who neglected to fast without a permissible excuse for a number of years? He was fulfilling the other obligations upon him. Does he make them up or seek to expiate them? How would he make these months up if he had to?
Response: The ruling regarding a person who neglected to fast in Ramadan whilst he was eligible for that, whether male or female, is that he has disobeyed Allaah and His Messenger and has fallen into a major sin. It is upon him to repent to Allaah due to this, as well as having to make up all that he missed. He must also feed a poor person for each day he missed if he is able to do so. If he is a poor person and cannot feed them, then it is enough for him to make up the days along with repentance. This is because fasting in Ramadan is a great obligation. Allaah ordained it upon the Muslims and the Messenger (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) has mentioned that it is one of the five pillars of Islaam. If he denies the obligation of fasting Ramadan then he is, by that, a disbeliever, belying Allaah and His Messenger. He must be asked to repent from the one in authority through the Islaamic courts. If he does not repent it is obligatory to kill him due to his apostasy, and due to the saying of the Messenger (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) that “…whoever changes his religion (from Islaam) then kill him.” Reported by Bukhaaree. However, if he did not fast due to illness or travel there is no sin upon him. It is obligatory upon him to make up these fasts once he has recovered from his illness or returned from his travel due to Allaah’s saying in the Qur.aan: “and he who was ill or on a journey the prescribed period should be made up by days later”. [Soorah al-Baqarah, Aayah 185].

Shaykh Ibn Baaz / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 50/Fatwa No.17)

5. The ruling concerning leaving off fasting due to laziness

Question: Is a person who leaves off fasting due to laziness and heedlessness like the one that leaves off prayer in the respect that he is a disbeliever (kaafir)?
Response: The one that leaves off fasting out of heedlessness and laziness is not a disbeliever. That is because the basic rule is that a person remains upon his Islaam until sufficient proof shows that he is outside Islaam. There is no proof that the person that leaves off fasting is outside the fold of Islaam if he left it due to laziness and heedlessness. This is not the same as prayer because the texts from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and the sayings of the companions all show that the person that leaves off praying through heedlessness and laziness is a disbeliever (kaafir.). ‘Abdullaah ibn Shaqeeq said: “…the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) didn’t consider as disbelief (kufr) the leaving off of any actions except prayer”. It is obligatory to call this person who is neglecting to fast due to laziness and heedlessness to fast. If he refuses he should be banished until he fasts.

Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen / (Fataawa Ramadan, Volume 1/Page 51/Fatwa No.18)